Le Canadien was a French-language newspaper published in Québec City from 1806 to 1893. The paper was founded by Parti canadien leader Pierre-Stanislas Bédard and its first edition was published 22 November 1806. Created in order to counter the Quebec Mercury, the voice of the British elite in Lower Canada and a vocal opponent of the Parti canadien, Le Canadien educated French Canadians on their constitutional rights, promoted the aims of the French Canadian majority in the elected assembly, and fought for the preservation of the French Canadian nation. Its motto was “Nos institutions, notre langue et nos lois” (Our institutions, our language and our laws). Though many editors guided the newspaper, it was under the direction of Étienne Parent (1831–42) that it became one of the most influential in the colony, playing an important role in the rise of the famed Parti patriote. The newspaper shut down in 1893 and was briefly revived in 1906–9.
The Quebec Mercury was a weekly English-language newspaper published in Québec City from 1805 to 1903. The opposite of the famous French-language newspaper Le Canadien, the Quebec Mercury represented and defended the political and economic interests of the British mercantile elite (the Château Clique). The newspaper opposed all reform that would give more authority to the French Canadian-dominated Legislative Assembly. It also promoted the political marginalization of French Canada, and sought to strengthen the colony’s ties with Great Britain. Throughout most of its existence, the newspaper was owned by the Cary family, a famous family of newspaper moguls. In 1863, the newspaper was renamed the Quebec Daily Mercury. It was shut down in 1903.
The first newspapers in what is now Canada were published in Nova Scotia and Québec in the early 1750s, followed by Upper Canada in the 1790s. Known as gazettes, they were instruments of colonial governments that were tightly controlled and monitored by the government officials who subsidized them. It wasn’t until 1800 to 1850 that independent newspapers were first established. During that time, printing presses became less expensive to establish and operate, and literacy rates and an appetite for news and views developed.
Canadian Parents for French is a national organization of parents dedicated to the expansion of French second-language learning opportunities for young Canadians. Primarily driven by the volunteer efforts of parents, it has been the leading organization in Canada dedicated to the expansion of French immersion programs and the improvement of French second-language learning programs since the 1970s.
Rogers Communications Inc. is a diversified communications and media company that operates almost entirely in Canada. Founded in 1960 with a single FM radio station in Toronto, it is now the country’s largest provider of wireless services as well as a leading cable company and a major player in broadcasting, publishing and sports entertainment. Among its many brands are City TV, Maclean’s magazine and the Toronto Blue Jays.
Le Soleil is a French-language daily newspaper published in Québec City. It was founded in July 1880 under the name L’Électeur by a group of moderate Liberals including Wilfrid Laurier (who was its main éminence grise for close to 40 years). Its name changed to Le Soleil in 1896, and from 1936 to 1957 it gradually evolved into a major general newspaper. It still exists today in print and online, and is one of the main newspapers written in Québec City.
Prior to the 1960s, only a few periodicals were published for Aboriginal people, mainly by non-Aboriginal missionary and government organizations. Notable examples were the Chinook-language Kamloops Wawa (1891-1905) and the Inuktitut-language Oblate publications of the 1940s and 1950s.
Communications have played a special role in the North. Terrain, climate and distance made it difficult for northerners to communicate with each other or with southern Canada before the advent of electronic media. In traditional times, Inuit messages were passed through personal contact.