The word "ethnomusicology" was adopted by a group of music scholars in the 1950s to replace "comparative musicology". In the early and mid-20th century, the field was often defined to encompass musical traditions other than European art music (the study of which is sometimes labelled "historical musicology"). In the late 20th century, on the other hand, ethnomusicologists broadened the field to encompass, not only what is marketed as "world music", but all musical practices, the ideas that shape them, and the social contexts that sustain them. That is, ethnomusicologists ask questions about the ways in which social attitudes and values shape the production and reception of musical sound. In addition, they consider how the performance of sound itself and the means by which the sound circulates (ie, in performance, via broadcasts, or as a commodity) shapes social values and attitudes, in turn structuring such things as class, ethnicity and gender.
Mariposa folk festival. It was founded in 1961 in Orillia, Ont, by Ruth Jones, her husband, Dr Crawford Jones, and Pete McGarvey. The name 'Mariposa' was taken from Stephen Leacock's book Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town, in which the 'little town,' a thinly disguised Orillia, was called Mariposa.
The musician who directs a group of singers or instrumentalists without participating in the actual singing or playing is essentially the creation of the early 19th century; the one who makes a full-time career of such leadership is the product of the final decades of that century.
The attribution of the music to a native-born priest, Charles-Amador Martin (1648-1711), is an attractive possibility, though not fully proven. This piece, though not nearly as early as the earliest compositions from New Spain, does antedate the earliest known by composers of New England.
Festival international de jazz de Montréal (FIJM). Canada's largest music festival, and one of the leading jazz events in the world. It was established in 1980 by Alain Simard and André Ménard of Spectra Scène Ltée and held July 2 to 10 on the site of Man and his World on Île Ste-Hélène.