Showing All of 233 results for "Innovations & Technology"


Potash is an alkaline potassium compound most commonly used in fertilizers. It refers to a variety of salts produced through mining of minerals and chemical manufacturing. Canada is the world's largest potash producer and exporter.


In Canada, elemental sulphur is recovered from the processing of sour natural gas with a high hydrogen sulphide (H2S) content, and from the refining of high sulphur-bearing crude and heavy oil.


Natural graphite appears to have been created through the decomposition of organic material contained in LIMESTONE during metamorphism. The 3 main types of natural graphite are microcrystalline (known commercially as amorphous), crystalline flake and lump graphite.


Pure aluminum (Al) is a silver-white, malleable, ductile metal with one-third the density of steel. It is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.


SOCAN (Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada/Société canadienne des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs de musique) is a not-for-profit copyright collective that administers performing rights on behalf of its members — Canadian composers, songwriters, lyricists, and their publishers — as well as members of its international sister societies throughout the world.

Symphony Nova Scotia

While the present Symphony Nova Scotia was formed in 1983, its roots go back to 1897 when Max Weil founded the Halifax Symphony Orchestra, the first professional symphony orchestra in Canada.


Greenstone, general term for dark green, compact metamorphic rocks formed by the alteration of dark-coloured IGNEOUS ROCKS. Basalt, a common example, is a major component of the greenstone belts of the Canadian SHIELD. These belts contain the Shield's principal GOLD and base-metal mines.


Sodium chloride (NaCl), or common salt, is ubiquitous in the environment. In its solid form, salt crystallizes as colourless cubes and is called rock salt. Salt is also known to geologists as halite. Its crystal structure was the first to be determined by X-rays.


Gem-quality diamonds crystallize as octahedrons (8 faces), trisoctahedrons (24 faces), hexoctahedrons (48 faces) or a combination of these. Diamond owes its supreme standing among all the gemstones to 4 specific attributes.

Mineral Resources

Minerals are naturally-occurring, homogeneous geological formations. Unlike fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, minerals are inorganic compounds, meaning they are not formed of animal or plant matter.

Nepheline Syenite

Nepheline syenite is a white to light grey medium-grained IGNEOUS ROCK. It consists mostly of soda feldspar, nepheline and potash feldspar, accessory magnesium and iron-rich minerals.


Copper (Cu) is a malleable, ductile, reddish metal that melts at 1083°C. Copper has both a high electric and thermal conductivity. Only silver is a better thermal and electrical conductor.


The major contemporary use for nickel is as an alloying agent. Nickel is present in some 3000 different alloys that are used in more than 250 000 end-use applications. The most popular alloy in which nickel is used is stainless steel (seeIRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY).


Clay is the common name for a complex group of industrial MINERALS, each characterized by different mineralogy, occurrence and uses.


Cobalt (Co) is a brittle, hard, greyish-white magnetic metal that melts at 1495°C and that closely resembles iron and nickel. It is not found as a native element.


Uranium oxide was first identified in 1789 by M.H. Klaproth in the MINERAL pitchblende, but its distinctive property of radioactivity was discovered much later (1896) by Henri Becquerel.

Asbestos (Mineral)

The name asbestos comes from a Greek word meaning "inextinguishable" (often mistaken to mean "incombustible"). Asbestos is a collective term that is used to designate 2 separate groups of silicates: the serpentine group and the amphibole group.

Iron Ore

Its most important mineral forms are magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe) and siderite (FeCO3, 48.29% Fe). In Brazil, some ore that contains practically no other minerals can grade as high as 68% Fe, but the crude ore mined in Canada grades between 30 and 44% Fe.


Lead is extracted from mined ores containing zinc, silver and minor amounts of copper. It is also recovered from recycled materials; more than 50% of world metal production comes from recycling, making lead one of the most recycled metals in the world.


Slaked lime is quicklime combined with water; this hydrated lime is then sized to meet customer specifications.

Mining Safety and Health

Like most industrial activities, mining involves risk. However, contemporary mining in Canada is much safer than it once was.


Metallurgy is the art, science and technology of turning metals and alloys (i.e., materials consisting of two or more metals) into forms suitable for practical use.


 A mineral is an element or chemical compound formed in nature, usually by inorganic processes. Minerals may be composed of one element such as carbon (DIAMOND) or GOLD, or of several elements.


Molybdenum (Mo) is a silver-grey metallic element with an unusually high melting point (2610°C). It is an important alloying element in iron, steels and specialty alloys and is used frequently in combination with other ferrous additives.

Ocean Mining

Several types of valuable mineral deposits exist under the oceans and other large bodies of water. Where water is shallow, placer deposits can be recovered by large dredges (eg, tin minerals off the coasts of Java and Borneo).