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Haldimand County

Haldimand County, Ont, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 44 876 (2011c), 45 212 (2006c). The City of Haldimand County is situated on the north shore of LAKE ERIE along the GRAND RIVER, 20 km south of HAMILTON.


Leaf Rapids

Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 453 (2011c), 539 (2006c). The Town of Leaf Rapids is a mining community located 3 km south of the CHURCHILL RIVER on the Canadian Shield and 976 km northwest of Winnipeg.


Lake of the Woods

Lake of the Woods, 4350 km2 (of which 3149 km2 are in Canada), elevation 323 m, fed by Rainy River from the south and drained to the northwest by the Winnipeg River; it is a remnant of former glacial Lake Agassiz.



In 1663, the Jesuit priest Henri Nouvel landed on the south bank of the St Lawrence River and conducted the first mass. In 1696 this territory was the seigneurie de Lessard, granted to Pierre Lessard and Barbe Fortin, his wife.


Music in St. Catharines

St. Catharines. Ontario city, incorporated 1876, situated on the south shore of Lake Ontario. Known informally as "the Garden City," it was centred on the earliest of the four Welland canals. The present canal runs along the city's eastern limits.



Redcliff, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1912, population 5588 (2011c), 5116 (2006c). The Town of Redcliff is located adjacent to MEDICINE HAT and named for the outcroppings of red shale occurring along the banks of the nearby South Saskatchewan River.


Grand Banks

The water over the banks is mainly supplied by the southward-flowing cold LABRADOR CURRENT. This current splits as it approaches the Grand Banks, with one branch moving south along the coast of Newfoundland through Avalon Channel to St Pierre Bank.



Saskatchewan is part of the Prairie region and is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It is bordered by the US to the south, the Northwest Territories to the north, and Manitoba and Alberta to the east and west respectively.



Fredericton, NB, incorporated as a city in 1848, population 58,220 (2016 c), 56,224 (2011 c). The city of Fredericton is the provincial capital and is located in central New Brunswick, just below the head of tide on the Saint John River, 135 km inland from the Bay of Fundy.



Guelph, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1879, population 131,794 (2016 c), 121,688 (2011 c). The City of Guelph, the seat of Wellington County, is located on the Speed River in south central Ontario, 96 km west of Toronto and 28 km east of Kitchener-Waterloo. This industrial and educational centre is set in the heart of a highly productive agricultural region.


Editorial: The Arrival of Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia

The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

“Freedom and a Farm.” The promise was exciting to the thousands of African Americans, most seeking to escape enslavement, who fought in British regiments during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). Following the war, they joined tens of thousands of Loyalists — American refugees who had sided with the British. Between 80,000 and 100,000 Loyalists eventually fled the United States. About half came to British North America. The main waves arrived in 1783 and 1784. The territory that now includes the Maritime provinces became home to more than 30,000 Loyalists. Most of coastal Nova Scotia received Loyalist settlers, as did Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island (then called St. John’s Island).


Amber Valley

The community of Amber Valley (originally Pine Creek), Alberta was founded in 1910 by African American families from Oklahoma, Texas and other nearby states. Seeking a life away from segregationist Jim Crow laws, racial hostility and violence in the US, they came in response to the Canadian government’s offer of free land in the western part of the country (see Dominion Lands Policy). Amber Valley is located about 170 kilometres north of Edmonton and 24 kilometres east of the town of Athabasca. It was one of several Alberta communities settled by Black people in the early 20th century (see Black Canadians), and the furthest north.


Annapolis Royal

Annapolis Royal, NS, incorporated as a town in 1893, population 481 (2011c), 444 (2006c). The Town of Annapolis Royal is located on the south side of the Annapolis River, about 10 km from its mouth near the western shore of Nova Scotia.


Baffin Bay

 Circulation is generally anticlockwise; off Greenland, relatively warm, salty water moves north, while along Baffin Island, cold, fresher water originating from the Arctic Ocean flows south. Icebergs, formed by calving off the Greenland glaciers, appear year-round, but are most numerous in August.


Fogo Island

Fogo Island, Nfld, 254 km2, 15 km off Newfoundland's north-east coast, was named y do fogo, "fire island", by the Portuguese. The irregularly shaped island, heavily forested in the south, lies on shallow Fogo Shelf, which attracts salmon, cod and other species.



Lying in the northwestern corner of Canada and isolated by rugged mountains, the Yukon borders Alaska to the west, British Columbia to the south and the Northwest Territories to the east. Historically, it is indelibly associated with the great Klondike Gold Rush.


Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories lie northwest of central Canada, bordered to the east by Nunavut, to the west by the Yukon and to the south by the northeastern corner of British Columbia, as well as the entire northern borders of Alberta and Saskatchewan.



Sometimes referred to as the “keystone” province because of its position in the centre of the country, Manitoba is bounded by Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, Ontario to the east, the United States to the south and Saskatchewan to the west.