Anderson River, 692 km long, originates in a group of lakes north of Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories and meanders north and west to empty into Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Beaufort Sea, just east of the Mackenzie Delta. Its lower reaches were originally inhabited by Inuit who were decimated by an epidemic of scarlet fever in 1865. During the 1860s the Hudson's Bay Company operated a trading post at its mouth, where the modern settlement of Stanton is located. It is named after James Anderson, an HBC factor formerly in charge of the district.