C.D. Howe Institute
The C.D. Howe Institute (formerly the Howe Research Institute), is a nonprofit policy research organization established in 1973 by a merger of the Private Planning Association of Canada, formed in 1958, and the C.D. Howe Memorial Foundation. It is located in Toronto. Its principal source of funding is the fees contributed by a membership that includes corporations as well as individuals with a background in business, the professions or academia. The institute's staff is responsible for the preparation of the annual Policy Review and Outlook and various other publications on topical issues. The institute also commissions leading researchers (academics for the most part) to write papers and monographs on a wide range of topics such as fiscal and monetary policy, trade policy, social policy, the environment, federal-provincial relations and constitutional reform. Although the main focus of the institute's research program is the economy, the range of topics it has covered over the years is very wide and occasionally extends to non-economic issues such as culture and ethnicity.