Moosonee, Ont, incorporated as a town in 2001, population 1725 (2011c), 2006 (2006c). The Town of Moosonee is located on the Moose River, 25 km from James Bay. The old fur-trade post, Moose Factory, lies on an island nearby. Moosonee began in 1903 as a rival post to the one at Moose Factory. The site was chosen in 1931 as the northern terminus of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway (now Ontario Northland Railway), which follows an old native canoe route along the Abitibi and Moose rivers. The railway was built in 1932 and continues to be the town's only land transportation link to the south. From 1961 to 1975 Moosonee was the site of an air force base. A development area board administered the community from 1968 until Moosonee received town status. The origin of the name is unclear; it was used in this spelling for an Anglican diocese founded in 1872.

Moosonee is Ontario's only saltwater port, but high hopes for its prosperity were never realized. Most residents are employed in the service sector, and during the summer months tourism is important. Many of the local native population are employed as guides for the tourists and hunters who ride the "Polar Bear Express" from Cochrane. The Revillon Frères Museum has displays of Moosonee's fur-trade past.