Vaudreuil, Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Marquis de

Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Marquis de Vaudreuil, governor general of New France 1703-25 (b probably near Revel, France c 1643; d at Québec C 10 Oct 1725). Vaudreuil served in the French army with the Mousquetaires from 1672 and distinguished himself in campaigns in Flanders. He was appointed commander of the troops in Canada in 1687 and took part in campaigns against the IROQUOIS (seeIROQUOIS WARS). He followed CALLIÈRE in the governorship of Montréal 1698-1703 and then as governor of New France from 1703 until his death. When Vaudreuil took over, the colony was at war with its southern neighbour and its Indian alliances were threatened because of the collapse of the beaver trade and the French withdrawal from the western posts. In his conduct of the war, Vaudreuil tried to preserve the 1701 peace with the Iroquois while encouraging the Abenakis to harass the eastern New England settlements. After the Treaty of UTRECHT, 1713, he worked through a network of highly effective Indian agents to reassert New France's control of the western FUR TRADE by establishing posts in Iroquois territory, and around the Great Lakes and upper Mississippi drainage area. He continued to exploit the Abenaki alliance to contain the spread of Massachusetts. He was a popular governor who through tenacious work and sometimes ruthless tactics guided New France through a critical era. His success was due in part to the lobbying of his Canadian-born wife at the French court.