Sussex, NB, incorporated as a town in 1904, population 4312 (2011c), 4241 (2006c). The Town of Sussex is located in south-central New Brunswick in a rich agricultural area, 73 km from SAINT JOHN on the Kennebecasis River. The area, originally known as Pleasant Valley, was renamed Sussex Vale in 1811 in honour of a son of George III, the duke of Sussex. The current name was adopted in 1900.
Although the area was part of an Acadian seigneury and several Acadian families temporarily settled there, the first permanent settlers were the LOYALISTS who arrived in 1786. However, it did not become a village until the construction of the INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY in 1859. Sussex Vale was a training area for the militia throughout the latter half of the 19th century, and it became a military town in 1890 with the establishment of Camp Sussex. During World War II the camp housed 10 000 troops and trained "Can-Loan" officers for the British army. One commandant of the officer training school was Brigadier-General Milton GREGG. Sussex retained a military presence until 1960.
The town remains an agricultural centre, with the processing of dairy products a major industry; it is also the site of a weekly livestock auction. Logging operations in the area are served by a J.D. Irving Ltd softwood lumber mill. Two potash mines operate within 32 km of the town. The Kings County Record has been published there since 1887.
In Kings County around Sussex are to be found 16 of the 64 covered bridges in New Brunswick. The one at Newtown, 14 km northeast from Sussex, was featured on a 1992 Canadian 25-cent coin. Recreational facilities include the nearby Poley Mountain ski hill. Sussex is situated near the western entrance to FUNDY NATIONAL PARK. Since 1985 the town has hosted the annual Atlantic Balloon Fiesta of hot air balloons.