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Cabbagetown

Cabbagetown, a district in east-central Toronto, the general boundaries of which are the Don River on the east, Parliament St on the west, Gerrard St on the north, and Queen St on the south.

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Cabot Strait

Cabot Strait, the passage between southwest Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island. Named for explorer John Cabot, it is 110 km wide between Cape Ray, Nfld, and Cape North, NS.

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Cache Creek

Cache Creek, BC, incorporated as a village in 1967, population 1040 (2011c), 1056 (2001c). The Village of Cache Creek is located in the dry belt of the southern interior of British Columbia at the junction of highways 1 and 97, 84 km west of KAMLOOPS.

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Caledon

Caledon, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 59 460 (2011c), 57 050 (2006c). The Town of Caledon is located 15 km northwest of Toronto.

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,239,220 (2016 census) 1,096,833 (2011 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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Cambridge

Cambridge, Ont, incorporated as a city in 1973, population 126 748 (2011c), 120 371 (2006c). The City of Cambridge, located along the GRAND RIVER, 55 km northwest of Hamilton near KITCHENER-WATERLOO.

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Cambridge Bay

Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, incorporated as a hamlet in 1984, population 1608 (2011c), 1477 (2006c). The Hamlet of Cambridge Bay is located on the southeast coast of VICTORIA ISLAND.

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Camp X

Camp X — a popular name that reflects the secrecy surrounding its activities — was a training school for covert agents and a radio communications centre that operated close to Whitby, Ontario, during the Second World War. It was the first such purpose-built facility constructed in North America. Known officially as STS (Special Training School) 103, Camp X was one of several dozen around the world that served the needs of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), the British agency created in 1940 to “set Europe ablaze” by promoting sabotage and subversion behind enemy lines. The radio communications centre, with its high-speed transmitter known as Hydra, was closely linked with British Security Co-Ordination (BSC), the New York-based agency directed by the Winnipeg-born businessman William Stephenson. Soviet defector Igor Gouzenko was hidden there after his defection in September 1945.

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Campbell River

Campbell River, BC, incorporated as a city in 2005, population 31 186 (2011c), 29 572 (2006c). The City of Campbell River was formerly a village (1947) and a district municipality (1964) before receiving civic status in 2005.

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Campbellton

Campbellton, NB, incorporated as a city in 1958, population 7385 (2011c), 7384 (2006c). The City of Campbellton is the administrative centre of Restigouche County. Campbellton is located on the Québec border near the mouth of the RESTIGOUCHE RIVER.

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Campobello Island

Campobello Island abuts the border with the US in PASSAMAQUODDY BAY , on the south coast of New Brunswick. Sovereignty over the ruggedly picturesque island was early in dispute, but passed to NB by convention in 1817. The

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Camrose

Camrose, Alta, incorporated as a city in 1955, population 17 286 (2011c), 15 630 (2006c). The City of Camrose, located 97 km southeast of Edmonton, is a distributing, medical, government and manufacturing centre for a rich, mixed-farming area.

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Canada and the Battle of Passchendaele

The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was fought during the First World War from 31 July to 10 November 1917. The battle took place on the Ypres salient on the Western Front, in Belgium, where German and Allied armies had been deadlocked for three years. On 31 July, the British began a new offensive, attempting to break through German lines by capturing a ridge near the ruined village of Passchendaele. After British, Australian and New Zealand troops launched failed assaults, the Canadian Corps joined the battle on 26 October. The Canadians captured the ridge on 6 November, despite heavy rain and shelling that turned the battlefield into a quagmire. Nearly 16,000 Canadians were killed or wounded. The Battle of Passchendaele did nothing to help the Allied effort and became a symbol of the senseless slaughter of the First World War.

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Canada and the Second Battle of Ypres

The Second Battle of Ypres was fought during the First World War from 22 April to 25 May 1915. It was the first major battle fought by Canadian troops in the Great War. The battle took place on the Ypres salient on the Western Front, in Belgium, outside the city of Ypres (now known by its Flemish name, Ieper). The untested Canadians distinguished themselves as a determined fighting force, resisting the horror of the first large-scale poison gas attack in modern history. Canadian troops held a strategically critical section of the frontline until reinforcements could be brought in. More than 6,500 Canadians were killed, wounded or captured in the Second Battle of Ypres.

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Canada East

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.

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Canada House

Canada House, a distinctive symbol of Canadian interests in Britain, located in London's bustling Trafalgar Square.

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Canada on D-Day: Juno Beach

Juno Beach was the Allied code name for a 10 km stretch of French coastline assaulted by Canadian soldiers on D-Day, 6 June 1944, during the Second World War. The Canadian Army’s 3rd Infantry Division and 2nd Armoured Brigade seized the beach and its seaside villages while under intense fire from German defenders — an extraordinary example of military skill, reinforced by countless acts of personal courage. The 3rd Infantry Division took heavy casualties in its first wave of attack but took control of the beach by the end of the day. More than 14,000 Canadian soldiers landed or parachuted into France on D-Day. The Royal Canadian Navy contributed 110 warships and 10,000 sailors and the RCAF contributed 15 fighter and fighter-bomber squadrons to the assault. There were 1,074 Canadian casualties, including 359 killed.

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Canada West

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.

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Canadian Broadcasting Centre

The Canadian Broadcasting Centre was developed as the result of a proposal call process in which the Cadillac Fairview Corporation Limited was selected to develop the 9.3 acre site, owned by the CBC, and build the centre, which was then leased to the CBC on a long-term basis.