Alternative media provide a range of perspectives and ideas that are not necessarily available in the profit-driven media products and outlets that dominate the Canadian mediascape. They include traditional media forms, such as books, newspapers, magazines, television, radio and film, as well as nontraditional and so-called “new media” forms such as zines and online publications and podcasts. Some definitions also include street theatre, murals, postering and culture jamming.
SchoolNet was an educational project launched in 1993 by federal, provincial and territorial governments, educational organizations and industry partners. Their goals were to link Canadian schools and libraries (particularly those in remote areas) via the Internet and to foster the creation of a Canadian educational website in English and French.
Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) is the world’s first Indigenous national broadcaster dedicated to Indigenous programming. First broadcast on 1 September 1999 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, APTN provides various content, including news, dramas and documentaries. Aimed at diverse audiences, APTN offers programming in Indigenous languages, English and French. It broadcasts into more than 11 million Canadian households and businesses, a significant portion of which are located in remote areas. APTN mainly generates revenue for operations through subscriber fees, advertising sales and partnerships.
The Province is a Vancouver daily, founded 1898. The newspaper was launched in 1894 in Victoria, BC, as a weekly, called The Province, by Hewitt BOSTOCK and his associates. In 1898 the Klondike Gold Rush started business booming in Vancouver and it was decided to transfer the operation there.
Newspapers are printed publications that are issued daily, weekly, or at other regular intervals. They provide news — that is, new and noteworthy reports of important or interesting recent events —opinion and analysis of those events, and other information that is of public interest. They are staffed by reporters, editors, photographers, and designers. Newspapers generate revenue by publishing advertisements, as well as through paid subscriptions and individual sales. Their content is available online, where it is published with greater frequency than in print. Almost a third of daily newspapers in Canada charge readers for their some or all of their online content. Some Canadian newspapers now publish solely online, having discontinued their print edition. Others were started as online news platforms, serving the same function as newspapers.
Northern Review was a literary magazine appearing irregularly, 1945-56, edited by John SUTHERLAND. It represented the end of the era when Montréal was the leading centre of modern Canadian POETRY IN ENGLISH. It arose from the merger of the earlier rivals, Preview and First Statement.
This Hour Has Seven Days, a weekly television program which ran from 4 Oct 1964 to 8 May 1966. Produced by CBC public affairs, the show achieved unprecedented popularity through its combination of serious topical and satirical elements, fast-moving pace and occasionally unorthodox and innovative subject matter.
Media convergence is a term that can refer to either: 1) the merging of previously distinct media technologies and media forms due to digitization and computer networking; or 2) an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together (see Media Ownership).
McClelland & Stewart Inc, publishing company founded in 1906 by John McClelland and Frederick Goodchild as McClelland and Goodchild Limited. When George Stewart joined the firm in 1914, his name was added to the title, but the present form was adopted after Goodchild's departure in 1918.1
The Canadian newspaper industry moved away from political patronage and partisanship about the turn of the 20th century, when the number of daily newspapers peaked. Objectivity rather than partisanship gradually became the focus of newspaper journalism, which became increasingly professional. As more people moved to cities and literacy rates climbed, competition among newspapers became fierce in markets where multiple daily newspapers were sold. As a result, many newspapers closed, merged with others or were acquired by growing media conglomerates, which became highly profitable corporations. By the 1980s, media concentration was the subject of government study and concern. However, no changes were implemented for fear of encroaching on press freedom. Near the end of this period, experiments with electronic publishing signalled the great changes ahead.
The first newspapers in what is now Canada were published in Nova Scotia and Québec in the early 1750s, followed by Upper Canada in the 1790s. Known as gazettes, they were instruments of colonial governments that were tightly controlled and monitored by the government officials who subsidized them. It wasn’t until 1800 to 1850 that independent newspapers were first established. During that time, printing presses became less expensive to establish and operate, and literacy rates and an appetite for news and views developed.
Independent newspapers were first established in Canada between about 1800 and 1850. During that period, printing presses became less expensive to establish and operate, and literacy rates and an appetite for news and views developed. Since publishers were less dependent on government subsidy than before, they were free to question and criticize the powers that be. As a result, an independent but not impartial journalism developed. From the mid-1800s to the early 1900s, newspapers became more profitable as populations and commerce expanded and reader and advertising revenues grew. During this time, mainstream newspapers represented the interests of political parties and cultural groups.
Nortel Networks Corporation, or simply Nortel, was a public telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer. Founded in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company, it was one of Canada’s oldest technology companies. Nortel expanded rapidly during the dot-com boom (1997–2001), purchasing many Internet technology companies in a drive to remain competitive in the expanding information technology (IT) market. At its height in 2000, the company represented over 35 per cent of the value of Toronto’s TSE 300 index. It was the ninth most valuable corporation in the world and employed about 94,000 people worldwide at its peak. But Nortel soon entered an extended and painful period of corporate downsizing, and in 2009, the company filed for bankruptcy protection in the largest corporate failure in Canadian history. Shareholders, employees and pensioners suffered losses as a result. Company executives, however, were paid a total US$190 million in retention bonuses between 2009 and 2016. Nortel sold off its assets for a total US$7.3 billion. Those assets were scheduled to be distributed to Nortel’s bondholders, suppliers and former employees in 2017.
Prior to the 1960s, only a few periodicals were published for Aboriginal people, mainly by non-Aboriginal missionary and government organizations. Notable examples were the Chinook-language Kamloops Wawa (1891-1905) and the Inuktitut-language Oblate publications of the 1940s and 1950s.
Le Canadien was a French-language newspaper published in Québec City from 1806 to 1893. The paper was founded by Parti canadien leader Pierre-Stanislas Bédard and its first edition was published 22 November 1806. Created in order to counter the Quebec Mercury, the voice of the British elite in Lower Canada and a vocal opponent of the Parti canadien, Le Canadien educated French Canadians on their constitutional rights, promoted the aims of the French Canadian majority in the elected assembly, and fought for the preservation of the French Canadian nation. Its motto was “Nos institutions, notre langue et nos lois” (Our institutions, our language and our laws). Though many editors guided the newspaper, it was under the direction of Étienne Parent (1831–42) that it became one of the most influential in the colony, playing an important role in the rise of the famed Parti patriote. The newspaper shut down in 1893 and was briefly revived in 1906–9.