Browse "Mining and Metallurgy"

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Aluminum

Pure aluminum (Al) is a silver-white, malleable, ductile metal with one-third the density of steel. It is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust.

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Antimony

Antimony (Sb) is a silvery-white, lustrous, crystalline solid. Uncharacteristically for metals, it is brittle and conducts heat and electricity poorly. Antimony melts at 630°C and boils at 1380°C. The mineral stibnite is the most important source of antimony.

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Asbestos (Mineral)

The name asbestos comes from a Greek word meaning "inextinguishable" (often mistaken to mean "incombustible"). Asbestos is a collective term that is used to designate 2 separate groups of silicates: the serpentine group and the amphibole group.

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Barite

Barite (BaSO4) is a white, colourless, gray, brown, yellow, blue or red mineral found in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is composed of 65.7% barium oxide (BaO) and 34.3% sulphur trioxide (SO3).

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Cadmium

Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, ductile, silvery white metal that melts at 320.9°C and is present in the earth's crust at 0.1-0.5 parts per million. The most common cadmium MINERAL, greenockite (CdS), is generally found in zinc-bearing ores and is recovered as a by-product during processing.

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Chromium

Chromium (Cr) a hard, brittle, silver-white metal (melting point 1875° C), is widely known for its use as decorative trim on home appliances and automobiles. However, its most important use is in the manufacture of stainless STEEL, which typically contains about 20% chromium.

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Clay

Clay is the common name for a complex group of industrial MINERALS, each characterized by different mineralogy, occurrence and uses.

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Coal

Coal is a fossil fuel which has been used as a source of energy in Canada since the 18th century. Canada is home to a tenth of the world’s coal resources, the majority of which (over 90 per cent) are found in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan.

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Columbium

Columbium (Cb), or niobium, is a grey, ductile, tarnish-resistant and superconductive metal with a melting point of 2468°C. The name niobium (Nb) was officially adopted in 1951 by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, after 100 years of controversy.

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Copper

Copper (Cu) is a malleable, ductile, reddish metal that melts at 1083°C. Copper has both a high electric and thermal conductivity. Only silver is a better thermal and electrical conductor.

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Diamond

Gem-quality diamonds crystallize as octahedrons (8 faces), trisoctahedrons (24 faces), hexoctahedrons (48 faces) or a combination of these. Diamond owes its supreme standing among all the gemstones to 4 specific attributes.

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Feldspar

Most of the world's feldspar is used in glass-making and in the production of ceramics such as wall and floor tiles and sanitaryware. It is also used to produce glazes and enamels and electrical porcelain. Feldspar occurs

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Gemstone

Canada's first DIAMOND mine - the Ekati mine near Lac de Gras, NWT - began production in 1998. Most of the diamond production is exported, but a small percentage is reserved for cutting in Canada.

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Gold

Gold (Au) is a bright, shiny, yellow metal, notable for its high density (19.3 times the weight of an equal volume of water) and valued for its extreme ductility, strong resistance to corrosion, lustrous beauty and scarcity.

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Graphite

Natural graphite appears to have been created through the decomposition of organic material contained in LIMESTONE during metamorphism. The 3 main types of natural graphite are microcrystalline (known commercially as amorphous), crystalline flake and lump graphite.

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Greenstone

Greenstone, general term for dark green, compact metamorphic rocks formed by the alteration of dark-coloured IGNEOUS ROCKS. Basalt, a common example, is a major component of the greenstone belts of the Canadian SHIELD. These belts contain the Shield's principal GOLD and base-metal mines.

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Gypsum

The principal use for gypsum is wallboard. Crude gypsum is pulverized and heated to form stucco, which is mixed with water and aggregate (sand, vermiculite or expanded perlite) and applied over wood, metal or gypsum lath to form interior wall finishes.

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Iron Ore

Its most important mineral forms are magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe) and siderite (FeCO3, 48.29% Fe). In Brazil, some ore that contains practically no other minerals can grade as high as 68% Fe, but the crude ore mined in Canada grades between 30 and 44% Fe.

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Limestone

Slaked lime is quicklime combined with water; this hydrated lime is then sized to meet customer specifications.