Browse "Nature & Geography"

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Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. The crust, also known as the North American Craton, extends from northern Mexico to Greenland and consists of hard rocks at least 1 billion years old. With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. At 5 million km2, the Shield makes up roughly 50 per cent of Canada’s land mass. Shaped like a horseshoe — or the shields carried during hand-to-hand combat — the Canadian Shield extends from Labrador in the east to include nearly all of Québec, much of Ontario and Manitoba, the northern portion of Saskatchewan, the northeast corner of Alberta, much of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and into the Arctic Archipelago. (It also reaches into parts of the United States, in New York, Wisconsin and Minnesota.) While at times a barrier to settlement, the Shield has also yielded great resources, including minerals, coniferous forests and the capacity for hydroelectric developments.

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Canals and Inland Waterways

These 2 great journeys were first made just before the end of the 18th century, and by the same man. Alexander Mackenzie reached the mouth of the river which now bears his name in 1789, and was the first European to cross the North American continent (to Bella Coola) in 1793.

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Canola

Canola is a type of rapeseed and is a Canadian invention; it is characterized by having improved nutritional qualities in both the oil and the meal.

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Cape Bonavista

Cape Bonavista, elevation 15-30 m, is the bare, rocky extremity of the Bonavista Peninsula, north of the town of Bonavista in eastern Newfoundland.

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Cape Bonavista Lighthouse

CAPE BONAVISTA separates Trinity and Bonavista bays on the eastern coast of Newfoundland. In 1842 it was decided to build a LIGHTHOUSE there as an aid to navigating the dangerous seas off the cape. The lighthouse operated for well over a century before it finally closed in 1962.

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Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 10 311 km2, a rugged and irregularly shaped island, approximately 175 km long by 135 km at its widest, is located at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

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Cape Kildare

Cape Kildare extends eastward into the Gulf of St Lawrence at the northern end of Prince Edward Island. Named by Samuel Holland in 1765 after James, 20th earl of Kildare, it is part of a series of capes in the area known as the Kildare Capes.

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Cape Race

Cape Race, elevation 30-40 m, is the southeastern extremity of Newfoundland's AVALON PENINSULA. Named for its flat-topped (Portuguese, raso) cliffs, it has a barren appearance that creates a stark impression for transatlantic

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Cape Sable

Cape Sable is the southernmost point of land on CAPE SABLE ISLAND, which lies off the southwestern tip of Nova Scotia. It is composed of shifting sand dunes (French, sable) up to 9 m high and is nearly joined to the island by a sandy beach transversed by Hawk Channel.

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Cape Sable Island

Cape Sable Island is a flat, wooded island off the southwestern tip of Nova Scotia. Connected to the mainland by a causeway on the north side, it shelters the waters of Barrington Bay to the east. The MIKMAQ hunted seals off Cape Sable Island.

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Cape Scott Provincial Park

Cape Scott Provincial Park (established 1973, 50 km2), on the northwest tip of VANCOUVER I, BC, includes 64 km of coast with 23 km of sandy beaches interspersed by rocky headlands. The land rises inland to Mount St Patrick (415 m), and in it lies a 44 ha body of freshwater, Eric Lake.

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Cape Spear

Cape Spear, elev 75 m, most easterly point in N America (excluding Greenland), is located 6.7 km SE of the entrance to St John's harbour, Nfld. A rocky, windswept promontory of Precambrian formation, with a thin, sporadic cover

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Cape St Mary

Cape St Mary forms the southern boundary of St Mary's Bay in an area of Nova Scotia's northwestern coast known as the French Shore. Fishing is the principal activity in this region; the cape was once the site of the International Tuna Cup matches.

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Cape St Mary's

Cape St Mary's, elevation 105 m, on Newfoundland's AVALON PENINSULA, is the steep and spectacular terminus of the land separating ST MARY'S BAY and PLACENTIA BAY near rich fishing grounds. The site of a lighthouse since 1860, the