Browse "Health & Medicine"

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Nobel Prizes and Canada

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually for achievements that have significantly benefitted humankind. The prizes are among the highest international honours and are awarded in six categories: physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and economics. They are administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by institutions in Sweden and Norway. Seventeen Canadians have won Nobel Prizes, excluding Canadian-born individuals who gave up their citizenship and members of organizations that have won the peace prize.

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Nursing

Marie Rollet Hébert [Hubou] has been credited with being the first person in what is now Canada to provide nursing care to the sick. The wife of Louis HÉBERT, a surgeon-apothecary, she arrived in Québec in 1617 and assisted her husband in caring for the sick.

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Occupational Diseases

Occupational diseases are disorders of health resulting from conditions related to the workplace. They are distinguished from occupational injuries, which are disorders resulting from trauma such as strains or sprains, lacerations, burns or soft-tissue injuries such as bruises.

Macleans

Olestra Controversy

Pass the potato chips. Olestra, a new synthetic food oil with zero calories, is promising to take the fat - and the guilt - out of greasy junk food. "This is something people really want," says Chris Hassall, a senior scientist with Cincinnati-based Procter & Gamble Co.

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Opting-Out

Opting-Out originated as a device by which one or more provinces choose not to participate in a federal-provincial shared cost program; instead the province receives direct payment (in cash or tax room) of funds which would have been spent there.

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Optometry

Optometry [Gk optos, "visible" and metron, "measure"] is the profession of examining eyes for faults of refraction, ocular mobility and visual perception and of the treatment of abnormal conditions with correctional lenses and orthoptics.

Macleans

Osteoporosis Breakthrough

In the spring of 1997, William Boyle, a microbiologist at Amgen Inc., a drug company based near Los Angeles, placed a telephone call to Dr. Josef Penninger, an immunologist at the firm's Toronto offshoot, the Amgen Research Institute.

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Pandemic

True pandemic outbreaks are global events caused by bacteria and viruses that are highly contagious in human populations. Such outbreaks have been documented since the 16th century, and each subsequent century has experienced numerous occurrences.

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Parasitology

Parasitology is a branch of biology dealing with organisms (animals or, rarely, plants) which live in or on other species (hosts) from which they derive nourishment.

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Pediatrics

Pediatrics is that branch of MEDICINE concerned with the child, its development, care and diseases.

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Pharmacy

Pharmacy is the act or practice of preparing, preserving, compounding and dispensing drugs. Louis HÉBERT, one of the first settlers of New France, was a pharmacist from Paris.

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Physical Anthropology

Human biological history is most directly told by the fossil record. Although early hominid remains (fossils in the human line) are not found in the Western Hemisphere, Canadians have contributed significantly to paleontology.