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Brethren in Christ

Brethren in Christ (identified as "Tunkers" in Canada in the 19th century) were a group of Christians who shared the Anabaptist belief in adult baptism.

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Kings Landing Historical Settlement

Kings Landing Historical Settlement is located 37 km west of Fredericton, NB. It was created in the late 1960s when the Mactaquac Dam threatened to flood many historic buildings in the Saint John River valley. Over 70 restored and reconstructed buildings and other structures are now located at Kings Landing to represent a New Brunswick settlement of the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Patriotes

  The Patriotes was the name given after 1826 to the Parti canadien and to the popular movement that contributed to the Rebellions of 1837-38 in Lower Canada.

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Francophonie and Canada

The term francophonie has been in common use since the 1960s. It has several meanings. In its most general sense, it refers to all peoples and communities anywhere in the world that have French as their mother tongue or customary language. The term can also refer to the wider, more complex network of government agencies and non-government organizations that work to establish, maintain and strengthen the special ties among French-speaking people throughout the world. Lastly, the expression “La Francophonie” is increasingly used as shorthand for the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (International Organisation of La Francophonie).

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Clan (Indigenous Peoples in Canada)

Clan has been used to designate social groups whose members trace descent from either male or female ancestors. For the Indigenous people in Canada, the term has been used most often to designate groups based on unilineal descent. This means that a person belongs to the clan of either parent.

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Charismatic Renewal

Charismatic Renewal, a transdenominational Christian movement, theologically diverse and ecumenical, begun in the 1950s, currently characterizes significant segments of the church and is frequently referred to as neo-Pentecostal.

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Collectivism

As the social evils of industrialization and urbanization unfolded in the later 19th century, many Canadians saw the basic problem as an excess of individualism.

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Community

Community is one of those concepts that carry several meanings in everyday usage.

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Great Awakening

Great Awakening, New England-based movement of religious revivalism and evangelical pietism which came to Nova Scotia in 1775 with Henry ALLINE's decision to preach; it subsequently spread across the Maritimes. The religious currents which produced it were international and at least a century old.

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New Brunswick Schools Question

In May 1871, the government of New Brunswick, under George Luther Hatheway, passed the Common Schools Act. This statute provided for free standardized education throughout the province, the establishment of new school districts, the construction of schools, and stricter requirements regarding teaching certificates. This law also made all schools non-denominational, so that the teaching of the Roman Catholic catechism was prohibited.

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Bannock

Bannock [Old English bannuc, "morsel"], a form of bread that served as a staple in the diets of early settlers and fur traders. It took the form of a flat round cake or pancake. Ingredients included unleavened flour, lard, salt, water and sometimes baking powder.

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Education of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Before contact with Europeans, Indigenous peoples educated their youth through traditional means — demonstration, group socialization, participation in cultural and spiritual rituals, skill development and oral teachings. The introduction of European classroom-style education as part of a larger goal of assimilation disrupted traditional methods and resulted in cultural trauma and dislocation. Reformers of Indigenous education policies are attempting to reintegrate traditional teachings and provide more cultural and language-based support to enhance and improve the outcomes of Indigenous children in the education system.

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Lower Canada

Lower Canada was a British colony from 1791 to 1840. Its geographical boundaries comprised the southern portion of present-day Quebec. In 1791, Britain divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. (See: Constitutional Act 1791.) Britain had followed a similar policy of territorial division twice before. Prince Edward Island was detached from Nova Scotia in 1769. The provinces of Cape Breton and New Brunswick were created in 1784 in response to the wave of Loyalist immigration (which also occurred in Quebec). In 1841, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were renamed Canada West and Canada East, respectively. They were united as the single colony of the Province of Canada.

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Nine Hour Movement

The Nine Hour Movement was an international phenomenon, taking place in Canada between January and June 1872. The movement’s goal was to standardize shorter working days.

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Opus Dei

Opus Dei is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in 1928 by the Spanish priest Josemaria Escrivcriva, who preached that lay people can and should seek holiness in their work and everyday lives.

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Sisters of St Joseph

In 1966, 6 Canadian congregations of Sisters of St Joseph (Hamilton, London, Pembroke, Peterborough, Sault Ste Marie, Toronto) working in the fields of education and health-care activities formed the Federation of the Sisters of St Joseph of Canada.

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