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Article

Urban Transportation

Horse-drawn trams were a vast improvement, but they were far from ideal transportation. Heavy loads could not be hauled, and horses were expensive and required frequent rest periods; they also polluted the streets.

Article

Potlatch

The potlatch (from the Chinook word Patshatl) is a ceremony integral to the governing structure, culture and spiritual traditions of various First Nations living on the Northwest Coast and in parts of the interior western subarctic. It primarily functions to redistribute wealth, confer status and rank upon individuals, kin groups and clans, and to establish claims to names, powers and rights to hunting and fishing territories.

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Conservatism

The range of beliefs among those who call themselves conservatives in Canada is wide. Some, like the policy analysts of the Fraser Institute or like Stephen HARPER, the leader of the CANADIAN ALLIANCE, believe in a policy agenda of lower taxes, greater deregulation and increased privatization.

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Champlain Society

The Champlain Society was founded 1905 in Toronto by Sir Edmund Walker to increase public awareness of, and accessibility to, Canada's rich store of historical records. Membership, limited at first to 250, is now approximately 800.

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United Farmers of Quebec

The United Farmers of Quebec (Fermiers unis du Québec) were founded in 1920. PM Borden's decision to conscript farm youths caused a huge farmers' demonstration in Ottawa on 15 May 1918 and gave Québec farmers their first contact with the United Farmers movement in English Canada.

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Tseshaht (Sheshaht)

The Tseshaht (also Ts’ishaa7ath or Ć̓išaaʔatḥ; formerly Sheshaht) are a Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation living in Barkley Sound and Alberni Inlet, Vancouver Island, BC. As of September 2018, the federal government counted 1,212 registered members of the Tseshaht First Nation, the majority of whom (728) live off reserve.

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Population of Canada

Canada’s recorded population history begins in the 16th century with the arrival of Europeans and the subsequent depopulation of Indigenous peoples, due largely to epidemic disease. High rates of fertility and immigration caused the country’s overall population to grow rapidly until the mid-19th century, when it slowed slightly. Population growth continued to be slow through the First World War, Great Depression and Second World War, following which growth rates began to increase again. Today, Canada’s population growth is dependent on international migration. As of the 2016 census, Canada’s population was nearly 35.2 million (35,151,728).

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Dutch Canadians

From the earliest years of the 17th century, the Dutch were engaged in the fur trade on the Hudson River. In 1614, they established trading posts on Manhattan Island and at Fort Orange (present-day Albany, New York). But only after the American Revolution (1775-1783) did Dutch immigration to British North America (now Canada) begin. The Dutch who had long been settled in the Thirteen Colonies fit easily into Canadian society. Since that time, Canada has experienced three waves of immigration from the Netherlands, the largest of them after the Second World War.

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Conserver Society

"Canadians as individuals, and their governments, institutions and industries [must] begin the transition from a consumer society preoccupied with resource exploitation to a conserver society engaged in more constructive endeavours.

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Toronto Bathhouse Raids (1981)

On 5 February 1981, patrons of four bathhouses in downtown Toronto (The Barracks, The Club, Richmond Street Health Emporium, and Roman II Health and Recreation Spa) were surprised by 200 police officers in a series of coordinated raids, called “Operation Soap.” Law enforcement officials claimed the raids resulted from six months of undercover work into alleged sex work and other “indecent acts” at each establishment. Bathhouse patrons were subjected to excessive behaviour by police, including verbal taunts about their sexuality. When the night was over, 286 men were charged for being found in a common bawdy house (a brothel), while 20 were charged for operating a bawdy house. It was, up to that time, the largest single arrest in Toronto’s history. Most of those arrested were found innocent of the charges. The raids marked a turning point for Toronto’s gay community, as the protests that followed indicated they would no longer endure derogatory treatment from the police, media and the public.

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Hospitallers of St Joseph

Various movements arose in the 20th century to unite the nuns who could trace their origins to La Flèche: in 1953 the American and Canadian convents became one congregation, which the French congregations then joined in 1965. The generalate is in Montréal.

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4-H Clubs

The 4-H movement began in the US at the turn of the 20th century; the first similar club in Canada was organized in Roland, Manitoba, in 1913, and the concept quickly swept through the settled agricultural regions of the country.

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Canadian Identity and Language

Language policy in Canada, as it relates to Canadian identity, traditionally encompasses three points of view. One favours an officially bilingual Canada. It reaffirms the country as the product of two “founding peoples.” A version of this approach, introduced by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, endorses official bilingualism but rejects the claim that two “peoples” or “nations” deserve any special recognition. Rather, it argues that we should instead emphasize Canada’s multiculturalism. The second position argues that, since no linguistic group deserves special status, the country should therefore have no official languages. The third position argues that Canada is not only multicultural, but also multinational. It argues that French and English should have official status because this recognizes two of the country’s founding nations. This approach also suggests that efforts should be made to help preserve Indigenous languages.

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Curriculum Development

Curriculum development in Canada has gone from teaching survival skills, both practical and cultural, to emphasizing self-fulfillment and standards-based achievements. This evolution mirrors that which has occurred in other developed countries, namely in Europe.

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Women's Musical Clubs

Women's musical clubs. Associations of music lovers formed with the aim of improving the members' knowledge and appreciation of music, enriching the concert life of the local community, and encouraging young artists.

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Associations

Associations are voluntary, non-governmental, non-profit organizations composed of personal or institutional members, with or without federal or provincial incorporation.

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Music of the Hutterites

Named after Jakob Hutter, they were Anabaptists from Austria and south Germany who began to live communally in Moravia in 1529. After much persecution they emigrated to Russia in 1770 and thence to the USA ca 1870.

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Council of Canadians

The Council of Canadians is a national, non-partisan, non-profit citizens' organization dedicated to advancing global social justice and preserving and promoting Canadian sovereignty, political independence and democratic autonomy.