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Article

Récollets

Récollets, a reformed branch of the Franciscan family, came to France at the end of the 16th century. The main objective of the Récollets was to observe more strictly the Rule of St Francis, and like other semiautonomous branches, they came under the minister general of the Franciscans.

Article

Antoine-Denis Raudot

Antoine-Denis Raudot, intendant of New France, 1705-10 (b 1679; d at Versailles, France 28 July 1737). He had begun a career in the ministry of marine when he and his father Jacques Raudot were jointly appointed intendant.

Article

La Corriveau

La Corriveau, popular designation of Marie-Josephte Corriveau (born 14 May 1733 in St-Vallier, Québec; died 18 April 1763 in Québec City).

Article

Henri de Tonty

Henri de Tonty, explorer, voyageur (b 1649 or 1650; d at Ft Louis-de-la-Louisiane Sept 1704). He was the son of Lorenzo de Tonty, inventor of the "tontine" system of life annuity.

Article

Pierre de Troyes

Pierre de Troyes, soldier (d at Niagara 8 May 1688). He arrived at Québec in Aug 1685 with reinforcements for the beleaguered colony. Departing on 20 Mar 1686, de Troyes led a force of 30 colonial regular French troops and 60 militia from Montréal overland to James Bay.

Article

Voyageurs

Voyageurs were independent contractors, workers or minor partners in companies involved in the fur trade. They were licensed to transport goods to trading posts and were usually forbidden to do any trading of their own. The fur trade changed over the years, as did the groups of men working in it. In the 17th century, voyageurs were often coureurs des bois — unlicensed traders responsible for delivering trade goods from suppliers to Indigenous peoples. The implementation of the trading licence system in 1681 set voyageurs apart from coureurs des bois, who were then considered outlaws of sorts. Today, the word voyageur, like the term coureur des bois, evokes the romantic image of men canoeing across the continent in search of furs. Their life was full of perilous adventure, gruelling work and cheerful camaraderie.

Article

Daniel Greysolon Dulhut

Daniel Greysolon Dulhut, coureur de bois, fur trader, explorer (b at St-Germain-Laval, France c 1639; d at Montréal 25 Feb 1710). Dulhut helped extend the French trading empire around the Upper Great Lakes.

Editorial

Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, Jeanne Mance and the Founding of Montreal

Radiant sunshine bathed the Island of Montreal on the morning of May 18th, 1642. The hawthorns and wild cherry trees were in blossom and the meadow, where a group of French colonists had set up an altar, was dotted with trilliums and violets. Father Vimont celebrated mass, and declared that the new settlement, which they called Ville-Marie, was "only a grain of mustard seed... I have no doubt that this small seed will produce a tall tree that will bring forth wonders some day."

Article

Charles de Beauharnois de La Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois

Charles de Beauharnois de La Boische Beauharnois, Marquis de Beauharnois, (baptized 12 October 1671 in La Chaussaye, near Orléans, France; died 12 July 1749 in Paris, France). Beauharnois was a naval officer in the wars of Louis XIV. From 1726 to 1747, he was the governor of New France. He initially built upon Indigenous alliances and defended New France from British incursions. However, the loss of Louisbourg in 1745 and the subsequent deterioration of relationships with Indigenous allies both occurred under Beauharnois and contributed to the eventual conquest of New France.

Article

Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand

Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand, sixth bishop of Québec (b at Vannes, France Jan 1708; d at Montréal 8 June 1760). Educated by the Jesuits and Sulpicians and appointed bishop of Québec in 1740, Pontbriand arrived in August 1741 determined to remedy the abuses of episcopal absenteeism.

Article

Martin Boutet

Martin Boutet, (Sieur de Saint-Martin). Choirmaster, violinist, teacher, soldier, tailor, carpenter, b Sceaux, France, ca 1617, d Quebec City ca 1686. He enlisted 7 Apr 1643 at La Rochelle to serve for three years in Canada as a soldier and labourer.

Article

Grande Société

Grande Société, contemporary name for war profiteers charged with providing food for Canada and the French troops stationed there during the SEVEN YEARS' WAR.

Article

Baillairgé Family

Baillairgé Family, architects, sculptors and painters active in Québec for 5 generations until well into the 20th century, the most prominent of whom are Jean, François, Thomas and Charles.