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Benjamin Bowring

Benjamin Bowring, silversmith, watchmaker, merchant (b in Devonshire, Eng 1778; d at Liverpool, Eng June 1846). One of a large number of Devonshire tradesmen who immigrated to St John's, Bowring first visited Newfoundland in 1811; in 1815 he sold his shop in Exeter and opened a store in St John's.

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Mossom Boyd

Mossom Boyd, lumberman (b in India 1814; d at Bobcaygeon, Ont 23 July 1883). A member of the Anglo-Irish gentry, Mossom Boyd emigrated to the Sturgeon Lk area of Upper Canada in 1834.

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George Calvert

George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, English colonizer (b at Kipling, Eng 1579/80; d at London, Eng 15 Apr 1632). In 1621 he established a colony at FERRYLAND on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula, which became, by royal charter

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Canada First

Canada First, nationalist movement founded 1868 by Ontarians George Denison, Henry Morgan, Charles Mair and William Foster and by Robert Grant Haliburton, a Nova Scotian living in Ottawa.

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Sir Herbert Samuel Holt

Sir Herbert Samuel Holt, capitalist (b at Geashill, King's County, Ire 12 Feb 1856; d at Montréal 28 Sept 1941). Holt immigrated to Canada in 1873 and worked as an engineer and contractor on railway construction projects, including the mountain section of the main line of the CPR.

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Bjarni Herjolfsson

Bjarni Herjolfsson, Norse explorer (dates of birth and death unknown; lived in the 10th century). Herjolfsson was likely the first European to sight the east coast of North America. While sailing from Iceland to Greenland in 986 CE, Herjolfsson sighted lands that were later determined to be Baffin Island, Labrador and Newfoundland. Although Herjolfsson never set foot in North America, Leif Ericsson later retraced his voyage, establishing a settlement at what he called Vinland.

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Duplessis Orphans

Under the leadership of Premier Maurice Duplessis in the 1940s and 50s, the Québec government was responsible for a significant number of healthy children being diagnosed as mentally incompetent and sent to psychiatric hospitals.

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Robert Montgomery Horne-Payne

Robert Montgomery Horne-Payne, financier (b in Eng; d at Brentwood, Eng 30 Jan 1929). Long an invalid, he rarely visited Canada, but his financial skills left an imprint on the landscape and a northern Ontario town (Hornepayne) bears his name.

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Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson, mariner, explorer (born c. 1570 in England; disappeared 1611). Hudson was among a long list of explorers who searched in vain for a northern passage through Arctic waters from Europe to East Asia. He made four voyages historians are aware of, in 1607, 1608, 1609 and 1610–11. While he never found a route, in Canada, Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait are named for him, as well as the Hudson River in New York state. He disappeared, along with his son and seven companions, after being set adrift in a ship’s boat during a mutiny on James Bay in June 1611. (See also Northwest Passage; Arctic Exploration.)

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Robert Hobson

Robert Hobson, industrialist (b at Berlin [Kitchener], Canada W 13 Aug 1861; d at Hamilton, Ont 25 Feb 1926). Hobson worked first for the Grand Trunk Railway and in 1896 he became secretary-treasurer of the Hamilton Blast Furnace Co.

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George Hills

George Hills, Anglican bishop of British Columbia 1859-95 (b at Eythorne, Eng 21 June 1816; d 10 Dec 1895). An early graduate of Durham University, Hills was influenced by the Tractarians, serving under Dr Hook at Leeds parish church (1841-48).

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Richard Maurice Bucke

Richard Maurice Bucke, psychiatrist, author (b at Methwold, Eng 18 Mar 1837; d at London, Ont 19 Feb 1902). Brought to Upper Canada when one year old, Bucke was raised and educated on the family farm near Hamilton.

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Bunkhouse Men

Partly as a result of this, but primarily because jobs moved around, bunkhouse men were highly mobile, tramping within regions and sometimes across the country to find work. They were also often at the forefront of labour radicalism.

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Robert Simpson

Robert Simpson, merchant, founder of the Robert Simpson Co (b at Morayshire, Scot 16 Sept 1834; d at Toronto 14 Dec 1897). After his apprenticeship, he arrived in Canada in 1854 and found employment as a clerk in a store in

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Abigail Becker

During a vicious storm on 24 Nov 1854, the overloaded schooner Conductor foundered on a nearby sandbar. The captain and crew clung to the frozen rigging all night, not daring to enter the raging surf.

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Chasse-Galerie

French Canadian variant of the Wild Hunt, a legend which interprets strange noises in the air as relating to a hunter condemned to hunt throughout eternity. In Chasse-Galerie, one or several persons together are able, with the help of the devil, to travel in a canoe through the air at tremendous speed.

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Claude de Boutroue d'Aubigny

Claude de Boutroue d'Aubigny, chevalier, INTENDANT of New France 1668-70 (b at Paris, France 1620; d in France 1680). A Parisian judge and member of the noblesse de robe, Boutroue served as intendant of Canada between Jean TALON's first and second terms.