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Article

Letitia Youmans

Letitia Youmans, née Creighton, temperance worker (b in Hamilton Twp, UC 3 Jan 1827; d at Toronto 18 July 1896), founder of the WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION in Canada. Educated at the Burlington Ladies' Academy, she graduated in 1847 and taught there for 2 years.

Article

Jean-Louis Riel

Jean-Louis Riel (also known as Louis Riel Sr.), Métis leader, farmer, miller (born in 1817 in Île-à-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan; died in 1864 in Saint-Boniface, Manitoba). Riel rallied hundreds of Métis people in support of Métis defendants against the Hudson’s Bay Company in the 1849 Sayer trial. A landmark case in the history of the Canadian West, the Sayer verdict re-established free fur trade in the Red River Colony. By the 1850s, Jean-Louis Riel had become a leader of the French-Canadian community in the Red River. His role in having the French language used in the Assiniboia courts, and in gaining representation for the Métis on the Council of Assiniboia, helped to cement this status. Riel’s outspoken stance on Métis rights and autonomy significantly influenced his son, Louis Riel, who went on to become arguably the most significant historical Métis leader.

Article

Voyageurs

Voyageurs were independent contractors, workers or minor partners in companies involved in the fur trade. They were licensed to transport goods to trading posts and were usually forbidden to do any trading of their own. The fur trade changed over the years, as did the groups of men working in it. In the 17th century, voyageurs were often coureurs des bois — unlicensed traders responsible for delivering trade goods from suppliers to Indigenous peoples. The implementation of the trading licence system in 1681 set voyageurs apart from coureurs des bois, who were then considered outlaws of sorts. Today, the word voyageur, like the term coureur des bois, evokes the romantic image of men canoeing across the continent in search of furs. Their life was full of perilous adventure, gruelling work and cheerful camaraderie.

Article

William Yellowhead

William Yellowhead, or Musquakie, Ojibwa chief (d at the Rama Reserve, Lk Simcoe, Canada W 11 Jan 1864). During the WAR OF 1812 Yellowhead, then in his thirties or forties, fought for the British. He had his jaw shattered by a musket ball.

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Wintering Partner

A wintering partner (also "winterer") was an inland trader and shareholder, most notably in the North West Company. The wintering partner system evolved in New France, where fur merchants divided their profits with associates conducting the trade.

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Richard Chapman Weldon

Richard Chapman Weldon, educator, politician (b at Sussex, NB 19 Jan 1849; d at Dartmouth, NS 26 Nov 1925). His education was unusually broad for his day: BA (1866) and MA (1870) from Mount Allison; he received his doctorate in international law from Yale at age 23.

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George Woodcock

As George Fetherling points out in his biography The Gentle Anarchist (1998), Woodcock's life divides along the lines of the two countries in which he resided. Though born in Canada, Woodcock saw his immigrant family return to the UK within two years of his birth.

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Pierre Biard

Pierre Biard, Jesuit missionary (b at Grenoble, France 1567 or 1568; d at Avignon, France 17 Nov 1622). After long preparation for missionary work, Biard left for ACADIA in early 1611.

Article

Frederic Baraga

Frederic Baraga, Catholic missionary priest (b at Mala Vas, present-day Republic of Slovenia, 29 Jun 1797; d at Marquette, Mich 19 Jan 1868). He came to the US in 1830 and dedicated his life to serving the OTTAWA and CHIPEWYAN.

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Gordon Barnhart

Gordon L. Barnhart, educator, historian, lieutenant-governor of SASKATCHEWAN (b at Saltcoats, Sask). A respected historian, Gordon Barnhart graduated from the UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN (U of S) with a Bachelor of Arts (1967).

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Anthony Henday

Henday, Anthony, explorer (probably b on the Isle of Wight, Eng; fl 1750-62). Henday travelled farther into western Canada than any white person had before him, and his journal contains important glimpses of how the indigenous population lived at that time.

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Archibald Roy Megarry

Archibald Roy Megarry, publisher (b at Belfast, N Ire 10 Feb 1937). Megarry was publisher and chief executive officer of the Toronto Globe and Mail from 1978 to 1992 and was responsible for establishing its national edition.

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Bill Miner

Ezra Allen (Bill) Miner, outlaw (born circa 1847 in Bowling Green, KY; died 2 September 1913 in Covington, GA). Bill Miner was reputed to be the first train robber in Canada, although bandits had robbed a train of the Great Western Railway in Ontario on 13 November 1874, 30 years before Miner arrived in Canada. Miner was the first to rob the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and thus became an outlaw hero in Canadian folklore. Miner was known as “The Grey Fox” and the “Gentleman Bandit” because of his polite manners during holdups. Miner was also credited with being the outlaw who coined the phrase “Hands up!”

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James Kennedy Cornwall

Jim Cornwall became a staunch advocate of the settlement of the Peace River Country, and served as the Liberal member of provincial parliament (now MLA) for the Peace River riding from 1909 to 1913.

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Francis Gore

Francis Gore, colonial administrator (b at Blackheath [London], Eng 1769; d at Brighton, Eng 3 Nov 1852).

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Woodland Culture

 The Woodland culture comprises various cultural manifestations that took place mainly in southern Ontario and Québec between 3000 and 500 years Before Present (BP).

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Daniel Greysolon Dulhut

Daniel Greysolon Dulhut, coureur de bois, fur trader, explorer (b at St-Germain-Laval, France c 1639; d at Montréal 25 Feb 1710). Dulhut helped extend the French trading empire around the Upper Great Lakes.

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Louis Shickluna

Louis Shickluna, shipbuilder (b at Senglea, Malta 16 June 1808; d at St Catharines, Ont 24 Apr 1880). By 1835 he was engaged in ship construction at Youngstown, NY. He later moved to St Catharines and from 1838 leased a shipyard on the WELLAND CANAL which he purchased in 1845.

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