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Article

Basques

Basques were expert fishermen and sailors from the southeast corner of the Bay of Biscay. With the Portuguese, they were early arrivals to Newfoundland's Grand Banks.

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Norman Ryan

Norman Ryan, "Red," bandit (b at Toronto July 1895, d at Sarnia, Ont 25 May 1936). Nicknamed "Canada's Jesse James," Ryan committed numerous robberies in Ontario, Québec and the US, deserted the Canadian Army in WWI, and once made a spectacular escape from Kingston Penitentiary.

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Robert Prescott

Robert Prescott, soldier, colonial administrator (b in Lancashire, Eng c 1726; d at Rose Green, W Sussex, Eng 21 Dec 1815). He joined the British army in 1745 and saw service during the SEVEN YEARS' WAR at Louisbourg in 1758. He

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Lady Aberdeen

Ishbel Marie Marjoribanks Hamilton-Gordon, Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair, vice-regal consort, author, philanthropist and women’s rights advocate (born 14 March 1857 in London, United Kingdom; died 18 April 1939 in Aberdeen, United Kingdom). As Vice-Regal Consort to Governor General John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, from 1893 until 1898, Lady Aberdeen organized the National Council of Women in Canada, became first sponsor of the Women’s Art Association of Canada and helped found the Victorian Order of Nurses. Lady Aberdeen was the first woman to address the House of Commons and the first woman to receive an honorary degree in Canada.

Article

Robert Hood

Robert Hood, arctic explorer, artist (b at Portarlington, Ire 1797; d near Starvation Lk, NWT 20 Oct 1821). Hood joined the Royal Navy at age 14. In 1819 his artistic abilities gained him an appointment with the arctic land

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Louis-Antoine de Bougainville

Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, Comte de Bougainville, soldier, sailor (b at Paris, France 12 Nov 1729; d there 20 Aug 1811). After studying law and mathematics, he published a Traité de calcul intégral (1754-56) and was elected to the Royal Society (London).

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John Cabot

John Cabot (a.k.a. Giovanni Caboto), merchant, explorer (born before 1450 in Italy, died at an unknown place and date). In 1496, King Henry VII of England granted Cabot the right to sail in search of a westward trade route to Asia and lands unclaimed by Christian monarchs. Cabot mounted three voyages, the second of which, in 1497, was the most successful. During this journey Cabot coasted the shores of Newfoundland and Labrador, possibly sighted the Beothuk or Innu people of the region, and famously noted that the waters teemed with cod. At the time, the land Cabot saw was thought to be the eastern shore of Asia, the fabled island of Brasil, or the equally fabled Isle of Seven Cities. Cabot and his crew were the second group of Europeans to reach what would become Canada, following Norse explorers around 1000 CE. Despite not yielding the trade route Cabot hoped for, the 1497 voyage provided England with a claim to North America and knowledge of an enormous new fishery.

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George Gleig

George Gleig, soldier, chronicler of the War of 1812 (b 20 Apr 1796 at Stirling, Scotland; d 9 Jul 1888).

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Robert Drummond

Robert Drummond, labour leader (b at Greenock, Scot 9 Oct 1840; d at New Glasgow, NS 26 Dec 1925). Drummond helped organize one of Canada's first coal miners' unions, the Provincial Workmen's Association of Nova Scotia, in 1879 and was its grand secretary 1879-98.

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Jacques Raudot

Jacques Raudot, intendant of New France, 1705-11 (b 1638; d at Paris, France 20 Feb 1728). He was related to the powerful Pontchartrain family and had had a distinguished legal career when he and his son Antoine-Denis Raudot were jointly appointed to the intendancy (with only Jacques salaried).

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Roald Amundsen

   Roald Amundsen, arctic explorer (b at Sarpsborg, Norway 16 July 1872; d between Norway and Spitsbergen 18 June 1928). Amundsen went to sea as a young man. Determined to navigate the NORTHWEST PASSAGE, he purchased the Gjoa, readied it for arctic waters and embarked in 1903.

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Planters

The terms of settlement promised religious freedom, except to Roman Catholics, but the Church of England initially had advantages and gave leadership for schooling youths. Most of the settlers were Congregationalists.

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John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen

John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, Earl of Aberdeen from 1870 to 1916, governor general of Canada from 1893 to 1898 (born 3 August 1847 in Edinburgh, United Kingdom; died 7 March 1934 in Tarland, United Kingdom). As governor general, the Earl of Aberdeen and his wife, Lady Aberdeen, focused on social welfare and engaging with Canadians of various backgrounds and cultures, setting precedents for the philanthropic initiatives of future governors general. Aberdeen also owned an estate in the Okanagan Valley and pioneered commercial fruit growing in the region.

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Julia Catherine Hart

Julia Catherine Hart, née Beckwith (b at Fredericton 10 Mar 1796; d there 28 Nov 1867). Hart wrote the first work of fiction by a native-born Canadian to be published in Canada.

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Labrador Archaic

The distinctive tools and weapons of the Labrador Archaic people included narrow spear or dart points with a stemmed base for hafting, flaked stone knives and, in some cases, small scrapers for preparing hides.

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Isaac Jogues

Isaac Jogues, Jesuit missionary, martyr (b at Orléans, France 10 Jan 1607; d at Auriesville, NY 18 Oct 1646). Jogues entered the Society of Jesus in 1624. Sent to the Canadian missions in 1636, he was captured and tortured

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