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Article

Florence Davidson

Florence Edenshaw Davidson, Haida elder, artist (b at Masset, Queen Charlotte Is [Haida Gwaii], BC 1895; d there Dec 1993), daughter of famous Haida chief and artist Charlie Edenshaw.

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Marie Gérin-Lajoie

Marie Gérin-Lajoie, feminist, pioneer social worker, founder of the Institut Notre-Dame du Bon-Conseil (born 9 June 1890 in Montréal, QC; died 7 January 1971 in Montréal).

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Fernand Dumont

Fernand Dumont, sociologist, philosopher, theologian and poet (b at Montmorency, Que., June 24, 1927; d at Québec, May 1, 1997). Dumont is considered one of the most prominent intellectuals Quebec has ever produced.

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Glooscap

Glooscap, the culture hero, transformer of the Eastern Woodlands Indigenous people.

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Abraham Feinberg

Abraham Feinberg, né Nisselevicz, rabbi, singer, peace activist (b at Bellaire, Ohio 14 Sept 1899; d at Reno, Nev 5 Oct 1986). Raised and educated in the US, he held rabbinical pulpits there in the 1920s.

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Emil Fackenheim

Emil Ludwig Fackenheim, philosopher, theologian (b at Halle, Germany 22 June 1916; d at Jerusalem 19 September 2003). Educated at the University of Halle, and ordained a rabbi in 1939, he fled Germany after a short imprisonment in a concentration camp.

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Métis Scrip in Canada

Scrip is any document used in place of legal tender, for example a certificate or voucher, where the bearer is entitled to certain rights. In 1870, the Canadian government devised a system of scrip — referred to as Métis (or “half-breed”) scrip — that issued documents redeemable for land or money. Scrip was given to Métis people living in the West in exchange for their land rights. The scrip process was legally complex and disorganized; this made it difficult for Métis people to acquire land, yet simultaneously created room for fraud. In March 2013, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the federal government failed to provide the Métis with the land grant they were promised in the Manitoba Act of 1870. Negotiations between various levels of government and the Métis Nation concerning the reclamation of land rights continue.

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Franco-Americans

From the mid-19th century to around 1930, over 900 000 francophone Québecois emigrated to the US. They migrated in waves, especially after the American Civil War, and around 1890 managed to feel at home and, in a few generations, adopted the habits and customs of their new surroundings.

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Benjamin Cronyn

Benjamin Cronyn, first Anglican bishop of Huron (b at Kilkenny, Ire, 11 Jul 1802; d at London, Ont, 22 Sept 1871), father-in-law of Edward BLAKE and Samuel Hume BLAKE.

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Crowfoot

Isapo-muxika (Crowfoot), Siksika chief (born circa 1830 near Belly River, AB; died 25 April 1890, near Blackfoot Crossing, AB). Known more commonly as Crowfoot, Isapo-Muxika was a Siksika chief and diplomat who negotiated with the federal government on behalf of the Blackfoot Confederacy. He was a key link between Aboriginal peoples on the western Plains and colonial forces by way of the North-West Mounted Police, and was key negotiator and supporter of Treaty 7.

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Jérôme Demers

Jérôme Demers, priest, vicar general, architect, teacher (born 1 August 1774 in Saint-Nicolas, QC; died 17 May 1853 in Québec City, Canada East). Demers taught literature, philosophy, architecture and science for over 50 years at the Séminaire de Québec.

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John Deserontyon

John Deserontyon, "Captain John," Mohawk chief (b in the Mohawk Valley, NY 1740s; d at Bay of Quinte, Upper Canada 7 Jan 1811). As a young man Deserontyon aided the British in the Seven Years' War and later during the 1763 Pontiac Uprising.

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Joe David

Joe David, Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) artist (b at Opitsat, BC 1946). A member of the Clayoquot Band, Joe David is a leading figure in modern Northwest Coast Indigenous Art.

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Immigration in Canada

The movement of nationals of one country into another for the purpose of resettlement is central to Canadian history. The story of Canadian immigration is not one of orderly population growth; it has been and remains both a catalyst to Canadian economic development and a mirror of Canadian attitudes and values; it has often been unashamedly and economically self-serving and ethnically or racially biased.

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Coureurs des bois

Coureurs des bois were itinerant, unlicenced fur traders from New France. They were known as “wood-runners” to the English on Hudson Bay and “bush-lopers” to the Anglo-Dutch of New York. Unlike voyageurs, who were licensed to transport goods to trading posts, coureurs des bois were considered outlaws of sorts because they did not have permits from colonial authorities. The independent coureurs des bois played an important role in the European exploration of the continent. They were also vital in establishing trading contacts with Indigenous peoples.

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John M Whyte

John M. (Marchant) Whyte. Evangelist, hymn writer, singer, b Paris, Canada West (Ontario), 8 Jun 1850, d Toronto 17 Mar 1927. He studied at the University of Toronto and devoted himself to evangelistic and temperance work.

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Jeremiah Jones

Jeremiah “Jerry” Alvin Jones, soldier, farmer, truck driver (born 30 March 1858 in East Mountain, NS; died 23 November 1950 in Halifax, NS). Jeremiah Jones was a Black Canadian soldier who served during the First World War. Jones was 58 years old (13 years above the age limit) when he enlisted with the 106th Battalion in 1916. As did many other underage and older enlistees at the time, Jones lied about his age when he signed up. Jones was recommended for a Distinguished Conduct Medal by his commanding officer for his heroic actions during the Battle of Vimy Ridge; however, he did not receive the medal during his lifetime. Thanks to advocacy of Senator Calvin Ruck and members of the Jones family, Jones was awarded the medal in 2010, 60 years after his death.