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Early French Measurement
International Polar Year
International Polar Year (IPY), 1882-83, was the first worldwide co-ordinated scientific enterprise and the most significant single event in the founding of the science of geophysics.
Weights and Measures: Table
Weights and Measures
Weights and measures are terms which traditionally referred to standards of mass (or weight), length and volume. Over the past few thousand years such standards have frequently been introduced throughout the world for trading and tax purposes.
Arpent, a French measure of length and area. Numerous regional variants of the arpent coexisted in 17th-century France; of these, the arpent de Paris came into use in Canada before 1636 as part of a system of measures. The arpent de superficie, or square arpent (equivalent to 0.
Metric conversion was the process of making metric units — such as metre, kilogram and degree Celsius — the common units of measurement in Canada, leaving the British imperial system (with units such as yard, gallon and pound) behind. The process was fraught with political interference and public resistance, and took place incrementally between 1970 and the early 1980s. Despite the shift, many Canadians still express certain measurements in imperial units, such as height (feet and inches).
Clocks and Watches
The manufacture of clocks and watches in Canada may have begun as early as 1700; however, practising watch and clockmakers through the 18th and much of the 19th centuries did not make the movements.
Invention of Standard Time
Knowing the time in different places is not an issue today, but long ago it was a complicated matter. Communities used their own solar time, which differed by one minute per 18 km of east-west separation between communities, the later time to the east.
History of the Canada-US Border in the West
In December 2001, U.S. Attorney-General John Ashcroft announced plans to deploy military personnel to patrol the Canada-U.S. border. After September 11, Ashcroft criticized Canada's porous border, though there was no evidence that any of the terrorists, all holding legal U.S. visas, came through Canada. It was not the first time that the longest undefended, and perhaps indefensible, border in the world was contentious.
The forty-ninth parallel is the line of latitude that forms the boundary between Canada and the US from Lake of the Woods to the Strait of Georgia.