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Grasses

Emergence of GrasslandsGrasslands began to appear about 25 million years ago, changing the face of much of the world and providing food for grazing animals. Grasses and grazers evolved together. Grasses benefit because grazers control the growth of competing species and provide fertilizers.

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Endive

Endive, or escarole (Cichorium endivia), herbaceous biennial vegetable belonging to the Compositae family.

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Fertilizer

Fertilizers are natural or synthetic materials that are used to supply essential nutrients for PLANT growth. Plants require 16 nutrients for growth. Carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) are taken up from the atmosphere and as water.

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Forage Crops

Forage refers to plants consumed by animals, particularly livestock. Forage may be preserved by drying the plants to produce hay, it may be fermented to produce silage, and dried material is also compressed to produce compacted hay, pellets, and cubes .

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Flax

Flax (Linum usitatissimum), annual plant belonging to the family of the same name (Linaceae). Flax is sown and harvested much like a spring cereal crop and matures at the same time as wheat.

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Fruit Cultivation

Fruit growing is an important part of Canada’s food industry. Growing is usually restricted to areas where winter temperatures do not go much below -20°C.

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Carrot

Carrot (Daucus carota), cool-climate plant belonging to the Umbelliferae family and grown as a root crop in Canada. Carrots are biennials, but are grown as annuals.

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Celery

Celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) is a biennial plant of the Umbelliferae family and it is widely grown as an annual for its nutritious leafstalks.

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Cereal Crops

Cereal Crops are members of the grass family grown for their edible starchy seeds. The important cereal crops produced in Canada are wheat, barley, oats, rye and corn.

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Pepper

Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a perennial plant, cultivated as an annual and belonging to the nightshade family.

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Eggplant

Eggplant (Solanum melongena var. esculentum), or aubergine, perennial herbaceous plant of the nightshade family.

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Herbs

Herbs and spices differ largely by usage. Spices are normally more aromatic than herbs, and are often of tropical origin. They may consist of seeds, bark, flower buds, fruits, etc. Herbs are usually leafy and locally grown, and their use extends far back into history.

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Buckwheat

Buckwheat (genus Fagopyrum), broad-leaved, erect annual belonging to the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae).

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Cabbage

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Capitata Group) is a biennial vegetable of the Cruciferae family, which is usually grown as an annual.

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Canola

Canola is a type of rapeseed and is a Canadian invention; it is characterized by having improved nutritional qualities in both the oil and the meal.