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Portage la Prairie

Portage la Prairie, MB, incorporated as a city in 1907, population 13,270 (2021 census), 13,304 (2016 census). The city of Portage la Prairie, located 70 km west of Winnipeg, is an important regional service centre for the flat but highly fertile soils of the surrounding Portage Plains.

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Sturgeon Falls

Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, population centre, population 6,939 (2021 census), 6,916 (2016 census). Sturgeon Falls is located 5 km up the Sturgeon River from Lake Nipissing. It was incorporated as a town in 1895. After a failed court challenge aimed at maintaining a separate identity (1997), Sturgeon Falls is now the administrative centre for the provincially-mandated town of West Nipissing (incorporated 1990).

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Belleville

Belleville, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1877, population 55,071 (2021 census), 50,716 (2016 census). The city of Belleville, the seat of Hastings County, is located on the Bay of Quinte, an arm of Lake Ontario about 180 km east of Toronto at the mouth of the Moira River.

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Province of Canada (1841-67)

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) recommended the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until the Province was dissolved to make way for Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec. The Province of Canada was a 26-year experiment in anglophone-francophone political cooperation. During this time, responsible government came to British North America and expanded trade and commerce brought wealth to the region. Leaders such as Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir George-Étienne Cartier and George Brown emerged and Confederation was born.

(This is the full-length entry about the Province of Canada. For a plain language summary, please see Province of Canada (Plain Language Summary).)

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Richmond Hill

Richmond Hill, Ontario, is a city 23 km north of Lake Ontario, population 202,022 (2021 census), 195,022 (2016 census). It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The city is bordered by Aurora to the north, Whitchurch-Stouffville to the east, Markham to the east and south, Vaughan to the west and south, and King Township to the west.

Richmond Hill became an incorporated village in 1872, changing status to town in 1957, and city in 2019. The modern borders were established in 1971 from the Town of Richmond Hill, as well as parts of King, Vaughan, Whitchurch and Markham Townships. Throughout history, the Richmond Hill area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg. The land is covered by Treaty 13 and the Williams Treaties.

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Mississauga

Mississauga, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 717,961 (2021 census), 721,599 (2016 census). The city was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Mississauga and the Towns of Port Credit and Streetsville. Located west of Toronto, Mississauga is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber river watersheds. Throughout history, the Mississauga area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by treaties 14, 19, 22 and 23.

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Québec City

Québec City, Québec, founded in 1608, population 531,902 (2016 c), 516,576 (2011 c). Québec City, the capital of the province of Québec, is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River where it meets the Rivière Saint-Charles. Here, the St. Lawrence narrows to a width of just over 1 km, and navigation is made difficult by a group of islands, the largest of which is Île d'Orléans. Cap-Diamant, a promontory with an elevation of 98 m, dominates the site and was used effectively as a fortification, earning Québec City the name "Gibraltar of North America." The name "Québec" is probably derived from an Algonquian word meaning "narrowing of the river."

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Chatham-Kent

Chatham-Kent, ON, incorporated as a municipality in 1998, population 103,988 (2021 census), 101,647 (2016 census). The Municipality of Chatham-Kent is located on the Thames River, 80 km east of Windsor. The City of Chatham (incorporated 1895) and Kent County (created 1792) are just two of the 23 former municipalities that comprise Chatham-Kent. Others include the towns of Wallaceburg, Blenheim, Tilbury, Ridgetown and Dresden. This large municipality is bounded by lakes St. Clair and Erie (to its west and east), with the lower Thames River running down its length.

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Wasaga Beach

Wasaga Beach, ON, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 24,862 (2021 census), 20,675 (2016 census). The Town of Wasaga Beach is located on the shores of Georgian Bay at the mouth of the Nottawasaga River, about 40 km northwest of Barrie. Wasaga Beach is the world's longest freshwater beach. The name was derived from the Nottawasaga River.

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Kamloops

Kamloops, BC, incorporated as a city in 1893, population 97,902 (2021 census), 90,280 (2016 census). The City of Kamloops amalgamated with North Kamloops in 1967 and in 1973 with surrounding residential areas to form the present city of Kamloops. It is located in southern British Columbia 355 km northeast of Vancouver via the Coquihalla highway. The city is situated at the confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers near their entrance into Kamloops Lake. The Kamloops Reserve 1, home to some members of the Tk'emlúps te Secwépemc First Nation, is adjacent to the city, on the northeast corner of the river junction.

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Prince Albert

Prince Albert, SK, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 37,756 (2021 census), 35,926 (2016 census). The City of Prince Albert is located on the south shore of the North Saskatchewan River near the geographical centre of the province. As Saskatchewan's "Gateway to the North," open prairie lies to the south of the city and lakes and forests to the north. Prince Albert is Saskatchewan's third largest city.

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Prince Rupert

Prince Rupert, BC, incorporated as a city in 1910, population 12,300 (2021 census), 12,220 (2016 census). The City of Prince Rupert is located on Kaien Island, at the mouth of the Skeena River in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. It is Canada's wettest city, with an average of 2,619 mm of precipitation falling each year. Prince Rupert marks western end of the Yellowhead Trans-Canada Highway and, as Canada's deepest ice-free seaport, a link between the lower United States, Vancouver and Alaska (see also Iconic Highways in Canada). For these reasons it is the industrial, commercial and institutional centre for BC's Northwest Coast.

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Lac-Mégantic (town)

Lac-Mégantic, Quebec was incorporated as a town in 1907, population 5,747 (2021 census), 5,654 (2016 census). Located in Estrie in the Regional County Municipality of Le Granit, the town of Lac-Mégantic is situated approximately 95 km east of Sherbrooke on the northeast shore of Lac Mégantic (see Eastern Townships). The town is Le Granit’s centre of industry (lumber and granite), administration and commerce. On 6 July 2013, a devastating train derailment occurred in Lac-Mégantic (see Lac-Mégantic Rail DisasterRailway Disasters).

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Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1834, population 2,794,356 (2021 census), 2,731,571 (2016 census). Toronto is Ontario’s capital city, Canada’s largest municipality and the fourth largest city in North America (see also Largest Cities in Canada by Population). It is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life.

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Powell River

Powell River, BC, incorporated as a city in 2005, population 13,943 (2021 census), 13,157 (2016 census). The City of Powell River is located on the east side of the Strait of Georgia, 133 km northwest of Vancouver. It is bounded on the east by the Smith Mountain Range, Powell Lake and Haslam Lake. The city enjoys a mild climate year-round, moderated by the warm current of the strait. It takes its name from the river draining Powell Lake, which was named for Israel Wood Powell, British Columbia’s superintendent of Indian affairs in the 1880s.

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Loretteville

Loretteville, QC, is a neighbourhood in Quebec City. Incorporated as a town in 1947, Loretteville amalgamated with Quebec City in 2002. Loretteville is located about 15 km northwest of downtown Quebec City, on the banks of Rivière Saint-Charles. It is often mistaken for the Huron-Wendat or Wendake reserve, an enclave within Loretteville (see also Reserves in Quebec).

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Markham

Markham, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1971, population 338,503 (2021 census), 328,966 (2016 census). Markham is located immediately northeast of Toronto. It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The Rouge River cuts through the municipality diagonally, connecting to Rouge National Urban Park. Initially an agricultural community, Markham is now known for its technology businesses and ethnocultural diversity.

Throughout history, the Markham area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg. The land is covered by Treaty 13 and the Williams Treaties.