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Bradford West Gwillimbury

Bradford West Gwillimbury, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1991, population 42,880 (2021 census), 35,325 (2016 census). The town of Bradford West Gwillimbury consists of the former town of Bradford (incorporated in 1960), most of the lands of the former township of West Gwillimbury, and a small portion of land from the township of Tecumseth. The town is located about 60 km north of downtown Toronto.

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Red Deer

Red Deer, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1913, population 100,844 (2021 census), 100,418 (2016 census). The city of Red Deer is located on the Red Deer River, 150 km south of Edmonton. The Cree applied the name “Elk” to the river, but Scottish fur traders appear to have confused elk with the red deer of their homeland.

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Reserves in Canada

In 2016, 744,855 people identified as First Nations with Indian Status, 44.2 per cent of which lived on reserves. Reserves are governed by the Indian Act, and residence on a reserve is governed by band councils as well as the federal government. Under the Indian Act, reserves that serve as residences are referred to as Indian Bands. Many reserves or bands are now referred to as First Nations. Reserves may serve as spiritual and physical homelands for their people, but they are also tangible representations of colonial governance. As such they are often the focal point of activism relating to land claims, resource management, cultural appropriation, socio-economic conditions, self-governance and cultural self-determination.

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Lunenburg

Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, incorporated as a town in 1888, population 2,405 (2021 census), 2,262 (2016 census). The town of Lunenburg, the seat of Lunenburg County, is located on Lunenburg Bay, 90 km southwest of Halifax.

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Glace Bay

Glace Bay,Nova Scotia, population centre, 16,915 (2021 census), 17,604 (2016 census). Glace Bay is a community located on the east coast of Cape Breton Island. On 1 August 1995 Glace Bay lost its status as a town when it was combined with the city of Sydney and five other towns in the area. Together, these municipalities formed the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Facing into the sun and the Atlantic Ocean, the location was known to the Mi’kmaq as Wasokusegwom (“bright home”). The French, who mined coal for Louisbourg from the cliffs, called the location “Baie de Glace.” The name was a reference to annual drift ice from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (see also Gulf).

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Whitby

Whitby, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1855, population 138,501 (2021 census), 128,377 (2016 census). The town of Whitby is located on Lake Ontario, 56 km east of Toronto.