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Kinngait

Kinngait (Cape Dorset), Nunavut, incorporated as a hamlet in 1982, population 1,441 (2016 census), 1,363 (2011 census). The hamlet of Kinngait is situated on Dorset Island, off the southeast coast of the Foxe Peninsula of Baffin Island, 395 km southwest of Iqaluit. Known for a period as Cape Dorset, in 2020 the hamlet returned to its original Inuktut name, Kinngait, meaning “mountains.”

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St. Catharines

St. Catharines, ON, incorporated as a city in 1876, population 136,803 (2021 census),  133,113 (2016 census). The City of St. Catharines is the principal city of the Niagara Region. It lies south of Toronto across Lake Ontario (111 km by the Queen Elizabeth Way), 19 km inland from the international boundary with the United States, along the Niagara River. The city is named after Catharine Hamilton, wife of Robert Hamilton, an influential merchant of Queenston and a landowner with mills on Twelve Mile Creek; the growing community, then known as The Twelve or Shipman's Corners, was renamed in her honour after her death in 1796. After 1876, as the urban area of St. Catharines expanded, it was permitted to annex parts of the surrounding Grantham Township, culminating in 1961 in the complete amalgamation of the township as well as the adjacent towns of Merritton and Port Dalhousie. In 1970, the rural township of Louth to the west was split between St. Catharines and the new town of Lincoln.

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Burnaby

Burnaby, BC, incorporated as a city in 1992, population 249,125 (2021 census), 232,755 (2016 census). Burnaby adjoins Vancouver on the west, Coquitlam on the east and New Westminster on the southeast. Named after Robert Burnaby, a businessman and legislator of the 1860s, it features Burnaby Mountain (365 m), Burnaby Lake, the Fraser River and Burrard Inlet. Burnaby was a district municipality for one hundred years before being granted civic status in 1992. It is governed by a mayor and eight councillors and is a member Metro Vancouver. (See also Municipal Government in Canada.)

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Toronto Chinatown

Toronto’s Chinatown, one of the largest in North America, is an ever-evolving neighbourhood defined by numerous cohorts of Chinese immigrants with a diversity of culture, traditions and languages. (See Chinese Canadians.) Also known as Chinatown West, it is one of three Chinatowns in Toronto, more of the large Chinese settlements are included from the inner suburbs, like Scarborough and North York, and outer suburbs, like Markham, Mississauga and Richmond Hill.

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Lethbridge

Lethbridge, AB, incorporated as a city in 1906, population 98,406 (2021 census), 92,729 (2016 census). The City of Lethbridge is located 215 km southeast of Calgary. It overlooks the steep valley of the Oldman River.

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Vancouver Chinatown

Vancouver's Chinatown features a distinctive hybrid of architectural styles that combines Chinese regional architecture with locally established Western motifs. The main streets in Chinatown follow a traditional Western grid pattern, while the north side is distinguished by interior courtyards, alleyways and façades that face both lanes and streets.

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Alexandria

Alexandria, ON, population centre, population 2,906 (2021 census), 2,845 (2016 census). Incorporated as a town in 1903, Alexandria lost this status in 1998 as the result of municipal restructuring in Ontario. It is now part of the new township of North Glengarry (population 10,109). Alexandria is located midway on the Canadian National Railway line between Montreal and Ottawa.

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Sault Ste Marie

Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1887 and as a city in 1912, population 72,051 (2021 census), 73,368 (2016 census). The city of Sault Ste Marie is located adjacent to the rapids of the St Marys River between lakes Superior and Huron. Across the river is the American city of the same name. Sault Ste Marie sits on the traditional territory of the Ojibwe, who called the site Bawating (“place of the rapids”) and valued it for its access to the upper Great Lakes and as a source of abundant whitefish and maple sugar. It is popularly called “the Sault,” or “Soo.”

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Grande Prairie

Grande Prairie, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1958, population 64,141 (2021 census), 63,166 (2016 census). The city of Grande Prairie is located 456 km northwest of Edmonton and takes its name from the large prairie that lies to the east, north and west of it. The city is the business and transportation centre of Alberta’s Peace River region.

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Laval

Laval, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 1965, population 438,366 (2021 census), 422,993 (2016 census). Laval was formed by the merger of 14 municipalities: Chomedey, Duvernay, Laval-des-Rapides, Laval-Ouest, Pont-Viau, Sainte-Rose, Auteuil, Fabreville, Îles-Laval, Laval-sur-le-lac, Sainte-Dorothée, Saint-François, Saint-Vincent-de-Paul and Vimont. Laval is the third largest city in Quebec. It is located on Île Jésus, north of Île de Montréal. Laval is separated from Île de Montréal by the Rivière des Prairies and from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles. The city is named after François de Laval, the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec (1674-88) and onetime seigneur (1675-80) of Île Jésus.

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Churchill

Churchill, MB, incorporated as a town in 1997, population 870 (2021 census), 899 (2016 census). The town of Churchill is located at the mouth of the Churchill River on the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. The river was named for Lord Churchill (later the first Duke of Marlborough).

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Portage la Prairie

Portage la Prairie, MB, incorporated as a city in 1907, population 13,270 (2021 census), 13,304 (2016 census). The city of Portage la Prairie, located 70 km west of Winnipeg, is an important regional service centre for the flat but highly fertile soils of the surrounding Portage Plains.

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Sturgeon Falls

Sturgeon Falls, Ontario, population centre, population 6,939 (2021 census), 6,916 (2016 census). Sturgeon Falls is located 5 km up the Sturgeon River from Lake Nipissing. It was incorporated as a town in 1895. After a failed court challenge aimed at maintaining a separate identity (1997), Sturgeon Falls is now the administrative centre for the provincially-mandated town of West Nipissing (incorporated 1990).

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Belleville

Belleville, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1877, population 55,071 (2021 census), 50,716 (2016 census). The city of Belleville, the seat of Hastings County, is located on the Bay of Quinte, an arm of Lake Ontario about 180 km east of Toronto at the mouth of the Moira River.

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Province of Canada (1841-67)

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) recommended the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until the Province was dissolved to make way for Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec. The Province of Canada was a 26-year experiment in anglophone-francophone political cooperation. During this time, responsible government came to British North America and expanded trade and commerce brought wealth to the region. Leaders such as Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir George-Étienne Cartier and George Brown emerged and Confederation was born.

(This is the full-length entry about the Province of Canada. For a plain language summary, please see Province of Canada (Plain Language Summary).)

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Richmond Hill

Richmond Hill, Ontario, is a city 23 km north of Lake Ontario, population 202,022 (2021 census), 195,022 (2016 census). It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The city is bordered by Aurora to the north, Whitchurch-Stouffville to the east, Markham to the east and south, Vaughan to the west and south, and King Township to the west.

Richmond Hill became an incorporated village in 1872, changing status to town in 1957, and city in 2019. The modern borders were established in 1971 from the Town of Richmond Hill, as well as parts of King, Vaughan, Whitchurch and Markham Townships. Throughout history, the Richmond Hill area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg. The land is covered by Treaty 13 and the Williams Treaties.

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Mississauga

Mississauga, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 717,961 (2021 census), 721,599 (2016 census). The city was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Mississauga and the Towns of Port Credit and Streetsville. Located west of Toronto, Mississauga is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber river watersheds. Throughout history, the Mississauga area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by treaties 14, 19, 22 and 23.

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Brampton

Brampton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 656,480 (2021 census), 593,638 (2016 census). The city of Brampton was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Brampton, the southern half of Chinguacousy Township, and portions of the Town of Mississauga and Toronto Gore Township. Located northwest of Toronto, Brampton is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber River watersheds. Throughout history, the Brampton area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

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Québec City

Québec City, Québec, founded in 1608, population 531,902 (2016 c), 516,576 (2011 c). Québec City, the capital of the province of Québec, is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River where it meets the Rivière Saint-Charles. Here, the St. Lawrence narrows to a width of just over 1 km, and navigation is made difficult by a group of islands, the largest of which is Île d'Orléans. Cap-Diamant, a promontory with an elevation of 98 m, dominates the site and was used effectively as a fortification, earning Québec City the name "Gibraltar of North America." The name "Québec" is probably derived from an Algonquian word meaning "narrowing of the river."