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What Is A Reserve?
A reserve is land set aside by the Canadian government for use by First Nations. Reserves were created by treaties and other agreements signed between various Indigenous peoples and the Crown. These lands represent a small fraction of the traditional territories Indigenous peoples had before the signing of treaties. The reserve system is governed by the Indian Act.
Editorial: How the “Canadianized” Community of Newfoundland Joined Canada
When the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa were repaired after a fire during the First World War, stone plaques were erected over the entrance to the Peace Tower. There were ten of them — nine bearing the coats of arms of the provinces and one left bare, to await the day when Newfoundland joined Canada.
In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.
History of Settlement in the Canadian Prairies
The Canadian Prairies were peopled in six great waves of migration, spanning from prehistory to the present. The migration from Asia, about 13,300 years ago, produced an Indigenous population of 20,000 to 50,000 by about 1640. Between 1640 and 1840, several thousand European and Canadian fur traders arrived, followed by several hundred British immigrants. They created dozens of small outposts and a settlement in the Red River Colony, where the Métis became the largest part of the population. The third wave, from the 1840s to the 1890s, consisted mainly but not solely of Canadians of British heritage. The fourth and by far the largest wave was drawn from many nations, mostly European. It occurred from 1897 to 1929, with a pause (1914–22) during and after the First World War. The fifth wave, drawn from other Canadian provinces and from Europe and elsewhere, commenced in the late 1940s. It lasted through the 1960s. The sixth wave, beginning in the 1970s, drew especially upon peoples of the southern hemisphere. It has continued, with fluctuations, to the present. Throughout the last century, the region has also steadily lost residents, as a result of migration to other parts of Canada, to the United States, and elsewhere.
Iqaluit, Nunavut, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 7,740 (2016 c), 6,699 (2011 c). Iqaluit is the capital and largest community in Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut. It is also the territory's only city. Iqaluit is situated at the northeast head of Frobisher Bay, on southern Baffin Island. In an area long used by the Inuit and their ancestors, it is surrounded by hills close to the Sylvia Grinnell River and looks across the bay to the mountains of the Meta Incognita Peninsula.
Ottawa, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1855, population 934,243 (2016 c), 883,391 (2011 c). The City of Ottawa is the capital of Canada and is located on the Ottawa River on Ontario's eastern boundary with Québec, about 200 km west of Montréal. The name "Ottawa" is thought to derive from an Algonquian-speaking First Nation of the same name, probably from a word meaning "to trade" (see Odawa). Amalgamation, on 1 January 2001, merged "old" Ottawa with 11 area municipalities and the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton to create a “new” city. The amalgamated city encompasses the municipalities of Ottawa, Vanier, Nepean, Kanata, Gloucester and Cumberland; the townships of Rideau, West Carleton, Goulbourn and Osgoode; and the village of Rockcliffe Park.
Wilton, Saskatchewan, incorporated as a rural municipality in 1909, population 1,629 (2016census), 1,494 (2011 census). The Rural Municipality of Wilton is located just east of Lloydminsteron the Saskatchewan-Alberta border. The main communities in the rural municipality are the town of Lashburn and the village of Marshall.
Invermere, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1983, population 3,391 (2016 census), 2,955 (2011 census). The District of Invermere is located on the northwestern shore of Windermere Lake in the Rocky Mountain Trench. Invermere is 130 km north of Cranbrook and 120 km southeast of Golden.
Elkford, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1981, population 2,499 (2016 census), 2,523 (2011 census). The District of Elkford is situated on the west side of the Elk River. The Elk River is a tributary to the Kootenay River, in the East Kootenay district of southeastern British Columbia. The district is 35 km north of Sparwood. It’s located among the Rocky Mountains, near the old coal-mining communities of Crowsnest Pass, and on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa people. At 1,300 m elevation, Elkford is the highest community in British Columbia.
Red River Resistance
The Red River Resistance(also known as the Red River Rebellion) was an uprising in 1869–70 in the Red River Colony. The resistance was sparked by the transfer of the vast territory of Rupert’s Land to the new Dominion of Canada. The colony of farmers and hunters, many of them Métis, occupied a corner of Rupert’s Land and feared for their culture and land rights under Canadian control. The Métis mounted a resistance and declared a provisional government to negotiate terms for entering Confederation. The uprising led to the creation of the province of Manitoba, and the emergence of Métis leader Louis Riel — a hero to his people and many in Quebec, but an outlaw in the eyes of the Canadian government.
The Edmonton Elks (formerly the Edmonton Football Team, or EE Football Team, and the Edmonton Eskimos) is a community-owned football team that plays in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). In the CFL’s modern era (post-Second World War), the team has won the second-most Grey Cup championships (14). This included three victories in a row from 1954 to 1956 and an unprecedented five straight championships from 1978 to 1982. The club also holds the North American professional sports record for reaching the playoffs in 34 consecutive seasons (1972–2005). Notable alumni include former Alberta premiers Peter Lougheed and Don Getty, former lieutenant-governor of Alberta Norman Kwong, former Edmonton mayor Bill Smith, and former NFL star Warren Moon.
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 19,569 (2016 census), 19,234 (2011 census). The city of Yellowknife is the capital of the Northwest Territories and the territory's only city. It sits on the Canadian Shield, on the north shore of Great Slave Lake, and about 400 km south of the Arctic Circle. Due to its northerly location, Yellowknife is the Canadian city with the most hours of summer sunshine, averaging 1,030 hours per year. The city and Yellowknife Bay were named after the Yellowknives, a Dene band who lived on the islands of Great Slave's East Arm and travelled as far north as the Arctic coast to obtain copper for knives and other implements. They, in turn, acquired their name from the copper-bladed knives they carried.
Gjoa Haven, Nunavut, incorporated as a hamlet in 1981, population 1,324 (2016 census), 1,279 (2011 census). The hamlet of Gjoa Haven is located on the southeast coast of King William Island, off the mainland Arctic coast, and just over 1,320 km northwest of Iqaluit. Channels and bays in the area are icebound for most of the year. It derived its name from Roald Amundsen, the first person to navigate the Northwest Passage. He wintered there and called the site after his ship, the Gjoa.
Val-d'Or, Quebec, city incorporated in 1968, population 32,491 (2016 census), 31,862 (2011 census). Val-d'Or is located 95 km southeast of Rouyn-Noranda in northwestern Quebec's Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. The town is near the source of the Harricana River, one of the major rivers flowing north to James Bay. Val-d’Or’s name is linked to the gold rush, second in scale only to the Klondike, which took the area by storm in the mid-1930s. (See Gold Rushes in Canada.)
Lévis, Quebec, city incorporated in 2002, population 143,414 (2016 census), 138,769 (2011 census). Lévis covers an area of 444 km2. The city is located on the rocky cliffs opposite Quebec City, to which it is linked by ferry. Present-day Lévis is the result of multiple mergers. In 1989, it merged with the industrial city of Lauzon (inc 1957). The following year, Lévis combined with the town of Saint-David-de-l'Auberivière. In 2002, Lévis took in the cities of Charny, Saint-Jean-Chrysostome, Saint-Nicolas, Saint-Rédempteur and Saint-Romuald. The parishes of Saint-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-de-Lévy and Sainte-Hélène-de-Breakeyville were also included in the fusion. The municipalities of Pintendre, Saint-Étienne-de-Lauzon, Desjardins and Chutes-de-la-Chaudière were also merged in.