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Saint-Nicolas

Saint-Nicolas, Quebec, population 23,675 (2019), 16,645 (2001 census). The city of Saint-Nicolas was originally incorporated in 1994 with the amalgamation of the municipalities of Bernières and Saint-Nicolas. Since 2002, Saint-Nicolas is part of the city of Lévis. Saint-Nicolas is located 17 km southwest of Quebec City. Saint-Nicolas is on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and to the west of Rivière Chaudière. It is a thriving residential suburb of Quebec City. The area is linked to the city of Sainte-Foy, on the opposite shore of the St. Lawrence, by the Pierre-Laporte suspension bridge and the old, cantilever Quebec Bridge. (See also Quebec Bridge Disaster.)

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Hull

Hull, Quebec, is part of the city of Gatineau. Originally its own municipality, Hull amalgamated with the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau and Masson-Angers in 2002. When Hull was incorporated in 1875, it was named after the township in which it was situated. In turn, Hull Township got its name from the city of Hull in Yorkshire, England.

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Reserves in Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is home to at least 70 First Nations and various Métis communities. It contains 782 reserves, settlements and villages, many of which are located in the southern half of the province. Reserves in Saskatchewan were created between 1874 and 1906 by Treaties 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10. As of 2016, 47.5 per cent of the province’s 114,570 self-identified First Nations peoples live on reserves, a percentage comparable to the province of Manitoba. Most of the remaining 47 per cent who reside off-reserve in Saskatchewan live in the cities of Saskatoon, Regina and Prince Albert.

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Muskoka

District Municipality of Muskoka, Ontario, incorporated in 1971, permanent population 60,599 (2016 census), 58,017 (2011 census); estimated seasonal population 85,163 in 2016. Muskoka is an iconic area of Ontario’s cottage country located approximately 200 km north of Toronto. A destination for seasonal residents and tourists who have been drawn by its natural beauty since the late 1800s, the district has equally been home to generations of permanent residents.

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Africville

Africville was an African-Canadian village located just north of Halifax and founded around the mid-19th century. The City of Halifax demolished the once-prosperous seaside community in the 1960s in what many said was an act of racism. The mayor of the Halifax Regional Municipality apologized for the action in 2010. For many people, Africville represents the oppression faced by Black Canadians, and the efforts to right historic wrongs.

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Georgina

Georgina, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1986, population 45,418 (2016 census), 43,517 (2011 census). The townships of North Gwillimbury and Georgina were amalgamated in 1971 and incorporated as the town of Georgina in 1986. The town of Georgina includes the communities of Udora, Keswick, Sutton and Jackson’s Point. It is located on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, 67 km north of Toronto.

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Faro

Faro, Yukon, incorporated as a town in 1972, population 348 (2016 census), 344 (2011 census). The town of Faro is located 6 km north of the Campbell Highway, 192 km by air northeast of Whitehorse.

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Carcross

Carcross, Yukon, settlement, population 301 (2016 census), 289 (2011 census). Carcross is a major Tagish and Tlingit community located at the north end of Bennett Lake, 74 km south of Whitehorse.

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Stadacona

Stadacona was an Iroquoian village located at the present site of Quebec City, Quebec. It had an estimated population of about 500. French navigator Jacques Cartier was led to the village on his second voyage in 1535 and wintered at a safe distance, across the St-Charles River.

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Canada West

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.

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Windsor (Ont)

Windsor, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1892, population 217,188 (2016 census), 210,891 (2011 census). The city of Windsor is Canada’s southernmost city. It is located on the Detroit River in the extreme southwest corner of the province. Lying directly south of Detroit on the rich agricultural peninsula nestled between Lakes Erie and  St. Clair, Windsor is an international gateway through which millions of foreign visitors enter the country each year.

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Barrie

Barrie, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1959, population 141,434 (2016 census), 136,063 (2011 census). Barrie is located at the head of Kempenfelt Bay, on the western edge of Lake Simcoe. Located within Simcoe County, Barrie shares borders with the municipalities of Oro-Medonte, Springwater, Essa, and Innisfil. Barrie is located on the traditional territory of the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe peoples, and covered by treaties 16 and 18.

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Mississauga

Mississauga, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 721,599 (2016 census), 713,443 (2011 census). The city was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Mississauga and the Towns of Port Credit and Streetsville. Located west of Toronto, Mississauga is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber river watersheds.

Mississauga is located on the traditional territory of the Huron-WendatHaudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by four treaties, 14, 19, 22 and 23.

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Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation

Attempts to bring Newfoundland into Confederation in the 1860s and 1890s were met with lukewarm interest in the colony. In 1934, Newfoundland was in bankruptcy during the Great Depression. It suspended responsible government and accepted an unelected Commission Government directed by Britain. In a 1948 referendum, Newfoundlanders were given the choice to either continue with the Commission Government, join Canada, or seek a return to responsible government as an independent dominion. The independence option won the first vote. But the Confederation option won a run-off vote with 52.3 per cent support. The British and Canadian parliaments approved of the union. Newfoundland became Canada’s 10th province on 31 March 1949. In 2001, the province’s name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.