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Fort McMurray

Fort McMurray, Alberta, unincorporated population centre, population 61,374 (2011c), 47,705 (2006c). Fort McMurray is the largest community in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB). It is technically known as the municipality’s “Urban Service Area” and colloquially known as “Fort Mac.” The community located near the confluence of the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in northeastern Alberta, near the centre of the vast Athabasca oil sands deposit. Originally incorporated as a city in 1980, in 1995 Fort McMurray merged with much of the surrounding area — collectively known as Improvement District No. 143 — to create the RMWB. At 63,783 km2, the municipality is the largest in North America in terms of size, accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the province’s total area. In May 2016, Fort McMurray experienced one of the worst forest fires in Canadian history. More than 80,000 residents were evacuated and approximately 2,400 structures — about 10 per cent of the city — were destroyed.

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Sarnia

Sarnia, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1914, population 71,594 (2016 c), 72,366 (2011 c). The City of Sarnia is located at the convergence of the St. Clair River and Lake Huron, 100 km west of London. A railway tunnel beneath the St. Clair and a highway bridge from nearby Point Edward connect Sarnia with Port Huron, Michigan. Sarnia is a major centre for the petrochemical industry and the southern terminus of an oil pipeline from Alberta. It was also the home of Alexander Mackenzie, first Liberal prime minister of Canada.

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Prince George

Prince George, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1915, population 76,708 (2021 census), 74,003 (2016 census). Prince George is the largest city in the northern part of the province. It is situated in the geographical centre of British Columbia at the junction of the Nechako and Fraser rivers. Prince George was founded on the traditional territory of the Lheidli T'enneh, a sub-group of the Dakelh or Carrier Dene. The Dakelh aided Alexander Mackenzie on his journey to the Pacific coast in 1793.

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Surrey

Surrey, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1993, population 568,322 (2021 census), 517,887 (2016 census). The city of Surrey is the second-largest municipality by population in British Columbia, after Vancouver. Part of Metro Vancouver, it is bounded by the Fraser River on the north and Washington state on the south. The municipalities of Langley and Delta lie to the east and west.

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Bradford West Gwillimbury

Bradford West Gwillimbury, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1991, population 42,880 (2021 census), 35,325 (2016 census). The town of Bradford West Gwillimbury consists of the former town of Bradford (incorporated in 1960), most of the lands of the former township of West Gwillimbury, and a small portion of land from the township of Tecumseth. The town is located about 60 km north of downtown Toronto.

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Lunenburg

Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, incorporated as a town in 1888, population 2,405 (2021 census), 2,262 (2016 census). The town of Lunenburg, the seat of Lunenburg County, is located on Lunenburg Bay, 90 km southwest of Halifax.

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Red Deer

Red Deer, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1913, population 100,844 (2021 census), 100,418 (2016 census). The city of Red Deer is located on the Red Deer River, 150 km south of Edmonton. The Cree applied the name “Elk” to the river, but Scottish fur traders appear to have confused elk with the red deer of their homeland.

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Glace Bay

Glace Bay,Nova Scotia, population centre, 16,915 (2021 census), 17,604 (2016 census). Glace Bay is a community located on the east coast of Cape Breton Island. On 1 August 1995 Glace Bay lost its status as a town when it was combined with the city of Sydney and five other towns in the area. Together, these municipalities formed the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Facing into the sun and the Atlantic Ocean, the location was known to the Mi’kmaq as Wasokusegwom (“bright home”). The French, who mined coal for Louisbourg from the cliffs, called the location “Baie de Glace.” The name was a reference to annual drift ice from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (see also Gulf).

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Whitby

Whitby, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1855, population 138,501 (2021 census), 128,377 (2016 census). The town of Whitby is located on Lake Ontario, 56 km east of Toronto.

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Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré

Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec, constituted as a town in 1973, population 2,888 (2021 census), 2,880 (2011 census). The town has an area 62.64 km2 and is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, 35 km east of Québec City. The town of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is known worldwide for its Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, a national shrine and pilgrimage site attracting over one million visitors and pilgrims annually. On 28 July 2022, Pope Francis celebrated mass at the basilica as part of his Apostolic Journey to Canada.

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North-West Territories (1870–1905)

The North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It was Established on 15 July 1870. As a territory, the region became part of Canada. But it lacked the population, economic and infrastructure resources to attain provincial status. It thus fell under the jurisdiction of the federal government. It covered a vast area, stretching west from a disputed boundary with Labrador, across the northern portions of present-day Quebec and Ontario, through the Prairies to British Columbia, and north from the 49th parallel to the Arctic Ocean. The territory was subject to numerous boundary changes before 1905. At that time, the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were carved out of the southwest portion of the region. In 1906, the remaining territory was renamed the Northwest Territories.

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New Westminster

New Westminster, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1860, population 70,996 (2016census), 65,976 (2011 census). The city of New Westminster is located on the north bank of the Fraser River, 20 km east of Vancouver. Governor James Douglas established New Westminster in 1859 as the capital of British Columbia. The Royal Engineers surveyed the city and Queen Victoria named it. As a result, New Westminster’s nickname is “The Royal City.” New Westminster is western Canada’s oldest city.

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Listowel

Listowel, ON, incorporated in 1867 as a village and in 1875 as a town, population 9,539 (2021 census), 7,530 (2016 census). Listowel is now part of the town of North Perth (incorporated in 1998). It is located 66 km northwest of Kitchener - Waterloo.

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,306,784 (2021 census), 1,239,220 (2016 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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Red River Resistance

The Red River Resistance (also known as the Red River Rebellion) was an uprising in 1869–70 in the Red River Colony. The resistance was sparked by the transfer of the vast territory of Rupert’s Land to the new Dominion of Canada. The colony of farmers and hunters, many of them Métis, occupied a corner of Rupert’s Land and feared for their culture and land rights under Canadian control. The Métis mounted a resistance and declared a provisional government to negotiate terms for entering Confederation. The uprising led to the creation of the province of Manitoba, and the emergence of Métis leader Louis Riel — a hero to his people and many in Quebec, but an outlaw in the eyes of the Canadian government.

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Saint Andrews (NB)

Saint Andrews, NB, incorporated as a town in 1903, population 1889 (2011c), 1798 (2006c). The Town of Saint Andrews is located at the mouth of the ST CROIX RIVER in the southwest corner of New Brunswick.