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Quebec Act, 1774

The Quebec Act received royal assent on 22 June 1774. It revoked the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which had aimed to assimilate the French-Canadian population under English rule. The Quebec Act was put into effect on 1 May 1775. It was passed to gain the loyalty of the French-speaking majority of the Province of Quebec. Based on recommendations from Governors James Murray and Guy Carleton, the Act guaranteed the freedom of worship and restored French property rights. However, the Act had dire consequences for Britain’s North American empire. Considered one of the five “Intolerable Acts” by the Thirteen American Colonies, the Quebec Act was one of the direct causes of the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). It was followed by the Constitutional Act in 1791.

This is the full-length entry about the Quebec Act of 1774. For a plain language summary, please see The Quebec Act, 1774 (Plain-Language Summary).

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Flin Flon

Flin Flon, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 4,940 in Manitoba, 159 in Saskatchewan (2021 census); 4,991 in Manitoba, 203 in Saskatchewan (2016 census); area 13.87 km2in Manitoba, 2.37 km2in Saskatchewan. The city of Flin Flon is situated along the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border, 743 km northwest of Winnipeg. The Saskatchewan part of Flin Flon is jointly administered by the two provinces. Flin Flon is named after the fictional character Professor Josiah Flintabbatey Flonatin (created by J.E.P. Muddock), the adventurer-explorer hero of The Sunless City (1905).

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Orillia

Orillia, Ontario, incorporated as a village in 1867, as a town in 1875 and as a city in 1969, population 33,411 (2021 census), 31,166 (2016 census). The city of Orillia is located on the shores of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching in central Ontario. The name likely derives from the Spanish word for the bank of a river or shore of a lake, orilla. The name was given by Sir Peregrine Maitland, lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1818-28), who had served in Spain.

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Chilliwack (BC)

Chilliwack, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1999, population 93,203 (2021 census), 83,788 (2016 census). The city of Chilliwack is located 100 km east of Vancouver on the south shore of the Fraser River. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors elected for four-year terms. The name is derived from the word Ts’elxwéyeqw. According to elder Albert Louie, in Halq’eméylem, the traditional language of the Stó:lō, the word means “going as far as you can go upriver” by canoe on the Chilliwack River.

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Drumheller

Drumheller, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1998, population 7,909 (2021 census), 7,982 (2016 census). The town of Drumheller is located on the Red Deer River in southern Alberta, 138 km northeast of Calgary. The Red Deer River valley is internationally known its abundance of fossils, particularly of dinosaurs.

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Truro

Truro, Nova Scotia, incorporated as a town in 1875, population 12,954 (2021 census), 12,261 (2016 census). The Town of Truro is located along the Salmon River 100 km northeast of Halifax on Cobequid Bay, Minas Basin. The town derives its name from New England settlers and likely honours Truro in Cornwall, England.

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Abbotsford

Abbotsford, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1995, population 153,524 (2021 census), 141,397 (2016 census). The amalgamation of the district municipalities of Matsqui and Abbotsford formed the city of Abbotsford. Abbotsford is located on the south bank of the Fraser River, 76 km east of Vancouver. The city is named after Harry Braithwaite Abbott, the general superintendent for the British Columbia division of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Abbotsford is BC's fifth most populous municipality.

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Medicine Hat

Medicine Hat, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1906, population 63,271 (2021 census), 63,260 (2016 census). The city of Medicine Hat is one of Alberta's largest cities. It is located on the Canadian Pacific Railway main line and the Trans-Canada Highway in the southeastern corner of the province, bisected by the South Saskatchewan River. Canada's “sunniest” city, Medicine Hat averages 330 days of sunshine per year. A council of eight councillors and a mayor govern the city.

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Gatineau

Gatineau, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 2002, population 291,041 (2021 census), 276,245 (2016 census). Gatineau was formed in 2002 following the amalgamation of the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau, Hull and Masson-Angers. The city is part of Canada’s National Capital Region. Gatineau’s city council consists of a mayor and 18 councillors elected by district.

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Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré

Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec, constituted as a town in 1973, population 2,888 (2021 census), 2,880 (2011 census). The town has an area 62.64 km2 and is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, 35 km east of Québec City. The town of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré is known worldwide for its Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, a national shrine and pilgrimage site attracting over one million visitors and pilgrims annually. On 28 July 2022, Pope Francis celebrated mass at the basilica as part of his Apostolic Journey to Canada.

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North-West Territories (1870–1905)

The North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It was Established on 15 July 1870. As a territory, the region became part of Canada. But it lacked the population, economic and infrastructure resources to attain provincial status. It thus fell under the jurisdiction of the federal government. It covered a vast area, stretching west from a disputed boundary with Labrador, across the northern portions of present-day Quebec and Ontario, through the Prairies to British Columbia, and north from the 49th parallel to the Arctic Ocean. The territory was subject to numerous boundary changes before 1905. At that time, the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were carved out of the southwest portion of the region. In 1906, the remaining territory was renamed the Northwest Territories.

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New Westminster

New Westminster, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1860, population 70,996 (2016census), 65,976 (2011 census). The city of New Westminster is located on the north bank of the Fraser River, 20 km east of Vancouver. Governor James Douglas established New Westminster in 1859 as the capital of British Columbia. The Royal Engineers surveyed the city and Queen Victoria named it. As a result, New Westminster’s nickname is “The Royal City.” New Westminster is western Canada’s oldest city.

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Listowel

Listowel, ON, incorporated in 1867 as a village and in 1875 as a town, population 9,539 (2021 census), 7,530 (2016 census). Listowel is now part of the town of North Perth (incorporated in 1998). It is located 66 km northwest of Kitchener - Waterloo.

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,306,784 (2021 census), 1,239,220 (2016 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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Fort McMurray

Fort McMurray, Alberta, unincorporated population centre, population 61,374 (2011c), 47,705 (2006c). Fort McMurray is the largest community in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB). It is technically known as the municipality’s “Urban Service Area” and colloquially known as “Fort Mac.” The community located near the confluence of the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in northeastern Alberta, near the centre of the vast Athabasca oil sands deposit. Originally incorporated as a city in 1980, in 1995 Fort McMurray merged with much of the surrounding area — collectively known as Improvement District No. 143 — to create the RMWB. At 63,783 km2, the municipality is the largest in North America in terms of size, accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the province’s total area. In May 2016, Fort McMurray experienced one of the worst forest fires in Canadian history. More than 80,000 residents were evacuated and approximately 2,400 structures — about 10 per cent of the city — were destroyed.

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Sarnia

Sarnia, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1914, population 71,594 (2016 c), 72,366 (2011 c). The City of Sarnia is located at the convergence of the St. Clair River and Lake Huron, 100 km west of London. A railway tunnel beneath the St. Clair and a highway bridge from nearby Point Edward connect Sarnia with Port Huron, Michigan. Sarnia is a major centre for the petrochemical industry and the southern terminus of an oil pipeline from Alberta. It was also the home of Alexander Mackenzie, first Liberal prime minister of Canada.

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Prince George

Prince George, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1915, population 76,708 (2021 census), 74,003 (2016 census). Prince George is the largest city in the northern part of the province. It is situated in the geographical centre of British Columbia at the junction of the Nechako and Fraser rivers. Prince George was founded on the traditional territory of the Lheidli T'enneh, a sub-group of the Dakelh or Carrier Dene. The Dakelh aided Alexander Mackenzie on his journey to the Pacific coast in 1793.

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Surrey

Surrey, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1993, population 568,322 (2021 census), 517,887 (2016 census). The city of Surrey is the second-largest municipality by population in British Columbia, after Vancouver. Part of Metro Vancouver, it is bounded by the Fraser River on the north and Washington state on the south. The municipalities of Langley and Delta lie to the east and west.