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Cold Lake

Cold Lake, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 2000, population 14,961 (2016 census), 13,839 (2011 census). The city of Cold Lake is located on a lake of the same name, 290 km northeast of Edmonton. The  Cree called the lake “Kinosoo” or “big fish” after a Cree legend. European settlers named the lake for its deep, cold water.

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Gimli

Gimli, Manitoba, rural municipality, population 6,181 (2016 census), 5,845 (2011 census). Gimli was incorporated as a town from 1947 to 2003 after which it was reunited into the Rural Municipality of Gimli. (The original rural municipality was incorporated in 1887 and the village of Gimli separated from it in 1908.) The community is located on the west shore of Lake Winnipeg, 76 km north of Winnipeg.

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Quesnel

Quesnel, BC, incorporated as a city in 1928, population 10 007 (2011c), 9326 (2006c). The City of Quesnel is located at the junction of the Quesnel and Fraser rivers in central British Columbia, 625 km northeast of Vancouver.

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Metchosin

Metchosin, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1984, population 4,708 (2016 census), 4,803 (2011 census). The District of Metchosin is located on Vancouver Island. It overlooks the Juan de Fuca Strait. Metchosin is part of the Greater Victoria area. From the late 1800s to 1958, a quarantine station operated at William Head in Metchosin. Many immigrants arriving to Canada by ship were quarantined at William Head before being allowed to enter the country. This was done in an effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases common on overcrowded ships. In addition, from 1924 to 1956, there was a leper colony on nearby Bentinck Island.

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Lunenburg

Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, incorporated as a town in 1888, population 2,263 (2016 census), 2,313 (2011 census). The town of Lunenburg, the seat of Lunenburg County, is located on Lunenburg Bay, 90 km southwest of Halifax.

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Dartmouth

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, metropolitan area, population (including Cole Harbour) 92,301 (2016 census), 91,212 (2011 census). Dartmouth is located on the eastern side of Halifax Harbour in the Halifax Regional Municipality (incorporated in 1996).

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Vaughan

Vaughan, ON, incorporated as a city in 1991, population 306,233 (2016 c), 288,301 (2011 c). The City of Vaughan — which includes the five constituent communities of Maple, Kleinburg, Concord, Woodbridge and part of Thornhill — is located in the York regional municipality, next to the northwest boundary of metropolitan Toronto. Traditionally an agricultural and milling community, Vaughan’s economy diversified over the latter half of the 20th century as immigration increased and the township developed into a city. Today, Vaughan is a multicultural community with a growing metropolitan core.

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White Rock

White Rock, BC, incorporated as a city in 1957, population 19 339 (2011c), 18 755 (2006c). The City of White Rock is 48 km by road southeast of Vancouver and is bounded on the north, east and west by Surrey. It began as a recreational resort on the shores of Semiahmoo Bay in SURREY.

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Mississauga

Mississauga, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 721,599 (2016 census), 713,443 (2011 census). The city was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Mississauga and the Towns of Port Credit and Streetsville. Located west of Toronto, Mississauga is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber river watersheds.

Mississauga is located on the traditional territory of the Huron-WendatHaudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by four treaties, 14, 19, 22 and 23.

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Red Deer

Red Deer, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1913, population 100,418 (2016 census), 90,564 (2011 census). The city of Red Deer is located on the Red Deer River, 150 km south of Edmonton. The Cree applied the name “Elk” to the river, but Scottish fur traders appear to have confused elk with the red deer of their homeland.

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Rebellion in Lower Canada (The Patriots' War)

In 1837 and 1838, French Canadian militants in Lower Canada took up arms against the British Crownin a pair of insurrections. The twin rebellions killed more than 300 people. They followed years of tensions between the colony’s anglophone minority and the growing, nationalistic aspirations of its francophonemajority. The rebels failed in their campaign against British rule. However, their revolt led to political reform, including the unified Province of Canada and the introduction of responsible government. The rebellion in Lower Canada, which is also known as the Patriots' War (la Guerre des patriotes), also gave French Canadians one of their first nationalist heroes in Louis-Joseph Papineau.

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Vegreville

Vegreville, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1906, population 5,708 (2016 census), 5,717 (2011 census). The town of Vegreville is located in the parkland region of east-central Alberta, 100 km east of Edmonton. It serves a rich agricultural region specializing in grains and some livestock.

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Fort McMurray

Fort McMurray, Alberta, unincorporated population centre, population 61,374 (2011c), 47,705 (2006c). Fort McMurray is the largest community in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB). It is technically known as the municipality’s “Urban Service Area” and colloquially known as “Fort Mac.” The community located near the confluence of the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in northeastern Alberta, near the centre of the vast Athabasca oil sands deposit. Originally incorporated as a city in 1980, in 1995 Fort McMurray merged with much of the surrounding area — collectively known as Improvement District No. 143 — to create the RMWB. At 63,783 km2, the municipality is the largest in North America in terms of size, accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the province’s total area. In May 2016, Fort McMurray experienced one of the worst forest fires in Canadian history. More than 80,000 residents were evacuated and approximately 2,400 structures — about 10 per cent of the city — were destroyed.

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History of Acadia

Acadia’s history as a French-speaking colony stretches as far back as the early 17th century. The French settlers who colonized the land and coexisted alongside Indigenous peoples became called Acadians. Acadia was also the target of numerous wars between the French and the English. Ultimately, the colony fell under British rule. Many Acadians were subsequently deported away from Acadia. Over time, as a British colony and then as part of Canada, Acadians increasingly became a linguistic minority. Nonetheless, Acadians have strived to protect their language and identity throughout time.

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Vancouver Chinatown

Vancouver's Chinatown features a distinctive hybrid of architectural styles that combines Chinese regional architecture with locally established Western motifs. The main streets in Chinatown follow a traditional Western grid pattern, while the north side is distinguished by interior courtyards, alleyways and façades that face both lanes and streets.

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Tsiigehtchic

Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territories, population 187 (2019). Tsiigehtchic is located at the confluence of the  Mackenzie and Arctic Red rivers. It is home to the Gwichya Gwich’in First Nation (“people of the flat lands”) who speak an Athapaskan language (see Indigenous Languages in Canada). Formerly known as Arctic Red River, the community’s name was changed to Tsiigehtchic (“at the mouth of iron river”) in 1994. The community is on the Dempster Highway. It is accessible by summer ferry across the Mackenzie River and in winter by ice road. Tsiigehtchic is one of four communities in the Gwich’in Settlement Region. The region is an area created by the Gwich’in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1992). The other three communities in the region are AklavikFort McPherson and Inuvik. (See also Dinjii Zhuh (Gwich'in).)

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Toronto

Toronto, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1834, population 2,731,571 (2016 census), 2,615,060 (2011 census). Toronto is Ontario’s capital city, Canada’s largest municipality and the fourth largest city in North America. It is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life.

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