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Toronto Chinatown

Toronto’s Chinatown, one of the largest in North America, is an ever-evolving neighbourhood defined by numerous cohorts of Chinese immigrants with a diversity of culture, traditions and languages. (See Chinese Canadians.) Also known as Chinatown West, it is one of three Chinatowns in Toronto, more of the large Chinese settlements are included from the inner suburbs, like Scarborough and North York, and outer suburbs, like Markham, Mississauga and Richmond Hill.

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Canada East

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.

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St. Catharines

St. Catharines, ON, incorporated as a city in 1876, population 136,803 (2021 census),  133,113 (2016 census). The City of St. Catharines is the principal city of the Niagara Region. It lies south of Toronto across Lake Ontario (111 km by the Queen Elizabeth Way), 19 km inland from the international boundary with the United States, along the Niagara River. The city is named after Catharine Hamilton, wife of Robert Hamilton, an influential merchant of Queenston and a landowner with mills on Twelve Mile Creek; the growing community, then known as The Twelve or Shipman's Corners, was renamed in her honour after her death in 1796. After 1876, as the urban area of St. Catharines expanded, it was permitted to annex parts of the surrounding Grantham Township, culminating in 1961 in the complete amalgamation of the township as well as the adjacent towns of Merritton and Port Dalhousie. In 1970, the rural township of Louth to the west was split between St. Catharines and the new town of Lincoln.

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Oshawa

Oshawa, ON, incorporated as a city in 1924, population 159,458 (2016 census), 149,607 (2011 census). The city of Oshawa is located 52 km east of Toronto on Lake Ontario. Originally called Skae's Corners, its present name is an Ojibwa term meaning “that point at the crossing of the stream where the canoe was exchanged for the trail.” In 1974, Oshawa became part of the newly formed Regional Municipality of Durham.

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Sydney

Sydney, NS, Urban Community. Sydney is located near the eastern extremity of CAPE BRETON ISLAND. It is the centre of the second-largest urban complex in Nova Scotia, CAPE BRETON REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY (1995).

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Saskatoon

The 2 Gowen sites show that hunting tribes were here 6000 years ago. Stratified settlement sites at Tipperary Creek (now Wanuskewin) indicate regular winter habitation by Indigenous peoples.

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Lower Canada

Lower Canada was a British colony from 1791 to 1840. Its geographical boundaries comprised the southern portion of present-day Quebec. In 1791, Britain divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. (See: Constitutional Act 1791.) Britain had followed a similar policy of territorial division twice before. Prince Edward Island was detached from Nova Scotia in 1769. The provinces of Cape Breton and New Brunswick were created in 1784 in response to the wave of Loyalist immigration (which also occurred in Quebec). In 1841, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were renamed Canada West and Canada East, respectively. They were united as the single colony of the Province of Canada.

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London

  London, Ont, incorporated as a city in 1855, population 366 151 (2011c), 352 395 (2006c). The City of London, the seat of Middlesex County, is centrally located in the southwest peninsula of the province, on the Québec-Windsor corridor midway between Toronto (185 km) and Windsor (190 km).

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Guelph

Guelph, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1879, population 131,794 (2016 c), 121,688 (2011 c). The City of Guelph, the seat of Wellington County, is located on the Speed River in south central Ontario, 96 km west of Toronto and 28 km east of Kitchener-Waterloo. This industrial and educational centre is set in the heart of a highly productive agricultural region.

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New Brunswick and Confederation

New Brunswick became one of the founding members of the Dominion of Canada on 1 July 1867 when it joined Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec in Confederation. Arthur Hamilton Gordon, the lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, helped organize the Charlottetown Conference (1–9 September 1864), where a federal union of British North American colonies was first discussed. By 1865, however, a majority in the New Brunswick legislature had swung against it. Albert Smith defeated pro-Confederation premier Samuel Tilley in a snap election that year. But the Fenian Raids in 1866 fueled New Brunswick’s sense of insecurity and increased support for Confederation. After Tilley’s party won another election in 1866, the legislature voted 38–1 in favour of Confederation.

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British Columbia and Confederation

The colony of British Columbia was founded in 1858 in response to the Fraser River Gold Rush. (See also The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia.) The colony established representative government in 1864 and merged with the colony of Vancouver Island in 1866. In May 1868, Amor De Cosmos formed the Confederation League to bring responsible government to BC and to join Confederation. In September 1868, the Confederation League passed 37 resolutions outlining the terms for a union with the Dominion of Canada. The terms were passed by both the BC assembly and the federal Parliament in 1871. The colony joined Canada as the country’s sixth province on 20 July 1871. The threat of American annexation, embodied by the Alaska purchase of 1867, and the promise of a railway linking BC to the rest of Canada, were decisive factors.

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Kingston

Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 132,485 (2021 census), 123,798 (2016 census). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the  Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the  Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.

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Moose Jaw

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 32,724 (2016 census), 32,546 (2011 census). The city of Moose Jaw is located 160 km north of the US border and 65 km west of Regina in a sheltered valley at the confluence of the Moose Jaw River and Thunder Creek. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors who are elected to represent the city as a whole. The city’s evocative name is likely based on Indigenous sources and was perhaps first applied to a local creek that supposedly resembled the outline of a moose’s jawbone; another explanation is that it comes from a Cree word for “warm breezes.”

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,239,220 (2016 census) 1,096,833 (2011 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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Reserves

In 2016, 744,855 people identified as First Nations with Indian Status, 44.2 per cent of which lived on reserves. Reserves are governed by the Indian Act, and residence on a reserve is governed by band councils as well as the federal government. Under the Indian Act, reserves that serve as residences are referred to as Indian Bands. Many reserves or bands are now referred to as First Nations. Reserves may serve as spiritual and physical homelands for their people, but they are also tangible representations of colonial governance. As such they are often the focal point of activism relating to land claims, resource management, cultural appropriation, socio-economic conditions, self-governance and cultural self-determination.

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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 88,071 (2016 c), 82,997 (2011 c). The City of Niagara Falls possesses a fame and name that are based on the stunning, world-famous Niagara Falls on the Niagara River. Growth has combined tourism and gambling with railhead developments at this Canadian–US border crossing. In the past the manufacturing industry (including electrochemicals and abrasives) dominated, fuelled by cheap and readily available hydroelectric power.

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Trois-Rivières

Trois-Rivières, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 1857, population 139,163 (2021 census), 134,413 (2016 census). The city is located at the mouth of the Saint-Maurice River, on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, midway between Quebec City and Montreal and is the regional capital of Quebec's Mauricie region. Its name derives from the 3-armed delta formed by the river's islands at its mouth.

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North-West Territories (1870–1905)

The North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It was Established on 15 July 1870. As a territory, the region became part of Canada. But it lacked the population, economic and infrastructure resources to attain provincial status. It thus fell under the jurisdiction of the federal government. It covered a vast area, stretching west from a disputed boundary with Labrador, across the northern portions of present-day Quebec and Ontario, through the Prairies to British Columbia, and north from the 49th parallel to the Arctic Ocean. The territory was subject to numerous boundary changes before 1905. At that time, the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were carved out of the southwest portion of the region. In 1906, the remaining territory was renamed the Northwest Territories.

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Canada West

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.