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Red Bay

Red Bay, NL, incorporated as a town in 1997, population 169 (2016 census), 194 (2011 census). The town of Red Bay is located on the Strait of Belle Isle, off Labrador’s south coast. Named for its prominent red cliffs, it was one of two major Basque whaling stations established in the 1540s. After research into Spanish documents and archaeological finds on Saddle Island and under water, Red Bay was designated a historical site in 1978-79 (see Red Bay Archaeological Site). In 2013, the whaling station at Red Bay was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Wauzhushk Onigum Nation

Wauzhushk Onigum Nation (pronounced Waa-JUSHK oh-KNEE-gum), commonly referred to as Rat Portage, is an Anishinaabe community based on the north shore of Lake of the Woods in northwestern Ontario. Wauzhushk Onigum’s primary reserve, Kenora 38B, is 22.3 km2. As of 2021, the First Nation has 802 registered members, 383 of whom live on this reserve. Wauzhushk Onigum is a member of Treaty 3, signed in 1873. The City of Kenora is 3 km northwest and is the closest service hub for the First Nation.

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Smallest Cities in Canada

If you look at a map of Canada, the number of place names can be overwhelming. Whether or not these places are considered municipalities depends on legislation specific to the province or territory in which they are located. Depending on the number of people who live there, municipalities may be called a number of names, including city, town, village or hamlet.

Most Canadian municipalities have thousands of residents. There are 11, however, that have 10 or fewer people.

This list is largely based on Statistics Canada’s 2016 census, as well as reliable information from other sources. It does not include “unorganized” communities, “designated places,” or reserves, as these are governed by larger municipalities, or in the case of reserves, the federal government.

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Cartography in Canada: 1500s

Most maps created in the 1500s that relate to Canada are manuscript compilations, often undated and anonymous. They were prepared by European cartographers rather than by explorers. Since cartographers had to work with available material, these maps are at times a perplexing mixture of new information and old, copied from unspecified sources. Any review of the sequence in which Canada was first mapped is therefore somewhat conjectural. (See also History of Cartography in Canada.)

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Trans Canada Trail

The Trans Canada Trail is over 27,000 km of land and waterways connecting every Canadian province and territory. Construction began in 1992 as part of Canada's 125th birthday celebrations. It was completed 25 years later, in 2017, when Canada turned 150. In 2016, the trail’s name changed to “The Great Trail.” However, in June 2021, the name reverted back to the original.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is Canada’s second-smallest province (following Prince Edward Island) and is located on the southeastern coast of the country. The province includes Cape Breton, a large island northeast of the mainland. The name Nova Scotia is Latin for “New Scotland,” reflecting the origins of some of the early settlers. Given its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, Nova Scotia’s economy is largely influenced by the sea, and its harbours have served as military bases during many wars.

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Val-d'Or

Val-d'Or, Quebec, city incorporated in 1968, population 32,491 (2016 census), 31,862 (2011 census). Val-d'Or is located 95 km southeast of Rouyn-Noranda in northwestern Quebec's Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. The town is near the source of the Harricana River, one of the major rivers flowing north to James Bay. Val-d’Or’s name is linked to the gold rush, second in scale only to the Klondike, which took the area by storm in the mid-1930s. (See Gold Rushes in Canada.)

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Beloeil

Beloeil, Quebec, incorporated as a in city 1914, population 22,458 (2016 census), 20,783 (2011 census). Beloeil is located 32 km east from Montreal on the west bank of the Rivière Richelieu, opposite the city of Mont-Saint-Hilaire. Beloeil, which loosely translated means “beautiful eye,” was probably given to the place by Jean-Baptiste Hertel in 1693. Upon looking out at the panoramic view from atop Mont St-Hilaire, he supposedly cried out, "Qu'elle est belle à oeil!" (What a beautiful eyeful!).

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Reserves in Ontario

There are 207 reserves in Ontario, held by 123 First Nations. In 2019, there were 218,451 registered Indians living in Ontario, 44 per cent of whom lived on reserves. Reserves in Ontario are held by Anishinaabe, Cree, Oji-Cree, Haudenosaunee, Delaware and Algonquin peoples. There are also a handful of First Nations in Ontario who, for a variety of reasons, do not have reserve land.

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Largest Lakes in Canada

Surveys suggest that there may be as many as 2 million lakes in Canada. While some look like small scratches on the country’s surface, many are quite large — Canada possesses nearly 14 per cent of the world’s lakes with surface areas over 500 km2. Below is a list of the largest of these large lakes. The list is ordered by the lake’s total surface area, not just the portions within Canadian borders.

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Lévis

Lévis, Quebec, city incorporated in 2002, population 143,414 (2016 census), 138,769 (2011 census). Lévis covers an area of 444 km2. The city is located on the rocky cliffs opposite Quebec City, to which it is linked by ferry. Present-day Lévis is the result of multiple mergers. In 1989, it merged with the industrial city of Lauzon (inc 1957). The following year, Lévis combined with the town of Saint-David-de-l'Auberivière. In 2002, Lévis took in the cities of Charny, Saint-Jean-Chrysostome, Saint-Nicolas, Saint-Rédempteur and Saint-Romuald. The parishes of Saint-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-de-Lévy and Sainte-Hélène-de-Breakeyville were also included in the fusion. The municipalities of Pintendre, Saint-Étienne-de-Lauzon, Desjardins and Chutes-de-la-Chaudière were also merged in.

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Saint-Nicolas

Saint-Nicolas, Quebec, population 23,675 (2019), 16,645 (2001 census). The city of Saint-Nicolas was originally incorporated in 1994 with the amalgamation of the municipalities of Bernières and Saint-Nicolas. Since 2002, Saint-Nicolas is part of the city of Lévis. Saint-Nicolas is located 17 km southwest of Quebec City. Saint-Nicolas is on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and to the west of Rivière Chaudière. It is a thriving residential suburb of Quebec City. The area is linked to the city of Sainte-Foy, on the opposite shore of the St. Lawrence, by the Pierre-Laporte suspension bridge and the old, cantilever Quebec Bridge. (See also Quebec Bridge Disaster.)

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Pintendre

Pintendre, Quebec, population 7,171 (2019), 6,209 (2001 census). Originally incorporated in 1901, Pintendre is now part of Lévis since 2002. The area is located on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River. Pintendre is situated on the agricultural plain next to the Appalachian mountains. (See Mountain Range.) Three rivers flow through the area’s boundaries: Etchemin, la Scie and des Couture.

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Anne of Green Gables

Lucy Maud Montgomery’s first novel, Anne of Green Gables (1908), became an instant bestseller and has remained in print for more than a century, making the character of Anne Shirley a mythic icon of Canadian culture. The book has sold an estimated 50 million copies worldwide, been translated into at least 36 languages, as well as braille, and been adapted more than two dozen times in various mediums. A musical version first produced by the Charlottetown Festival in 1965 is the longest running annual musical theatre production in the world, while the award-winning 1985 CBC miniseries starring Megan Follows is the most-watched television program in Canadian history. Thousands of tourists visit Prince Edward Island each year to see the “sacred sites” related to the book, and the sale of Anne-related commodities such as souvenirs and dolls has come to constitute a cottage industry.

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Largest Cities in Canada With an Indigenous Name

When naming a village, Canadian settlers looked to a variety of sources. Sometimes they’d name it for a resident or a famous person. Sometimes they’d name it for their hometown. The names of many of Canada’s largest cities, however, are derived from an Indigenous word.

Most of the names are descriptive of the land or animals in the area, such as Oshawa and Coquitlam. Others, like Mississauga, are named for the First Nation whose land the city was founded on. In the case of Kelowna, the name began as an offhand joke among Salish friends. Here are the ten most populous cities in Canada with names of Indigenous origin.

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Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is 18,960 km2 (10,000 km2 in Canada), with a drainage area of 90,130 km2, an elevation of 75 m, a mean depth of 86 m (max 244 m), length 311 km and width 85 km. It is the smallest in surface area and most easterly of the Great Lakes and eighth-largest body of fresh water in North America. The lake receives most of its water supply from the other Great Lakes through the Niagara River and discharges into the St Lawrence River through the Kingston Basin at its northeast end. Other tributaries are the Genesee, Oswego and Black rivers in New York state and the Trent River in Ontario. (See also Largest Lakes in Canada.)

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Hull

Hull, Quebec, is part of the city of Gatineau. Originally its own municipality, Hull amalgamated with the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau and Masson-Angers in 2002. When Hull was incorporated in 1875, it was named after the township in which it was situated. In turn, Hull Township got its name from the city of Hull in Yorkshire, England.