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Article

Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation

Attempts to bring Newfoundland into Confederation in the 1860s and 1890s were met with lukewarm interest in the colony. In 1934, Newfoundland was in bankruptcy during the Great Depression. It suspended responsible government and accepted an unelected Commission Government directed by Britain. In a 1948 referendum, Newfoundlanders were given the choice to either continue with the Commission Government, join Canada, or seek a return to responsible government as an independent dominion. The independence option won the first vote. But the Confederation option won a run-off vote with 52.3 percent support. The British and Canadian parliaments approved of the union. Newfoundland became Canada’s 10th province on 31 March 1949. In 2001, the province’s name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.

Article

Battle of Vimy Ridge

The Battle of Vimy Ridge was fought during the First World War from 9 to 12 April 1917. It is Canada’s most celebrated military victory — an often mythologized symbol of the birth of Canadian national pride and awareness. The battle took place on the Western Front, in northern France. The four divisions of the Canadian Corps, fighting together for the first time, attacked the ridge from 9 to 12 April 1917 and captured it from the German army. It was the largest territorial advance of any Allied force to that point in the war — but it would mean little to the outcome of the conflict. More than 10,600 Canadians were killed and wounded in the assault. Today an iconic memorial atop the ridge honours the 11,285 Canadians killed in France throughout the war who have no known graves.

This is the full-length entry about the Battle of Vimy Ridge. For a plain-language summary, please see Battle of Vimy Ridge (Plain-Language Summary).

Article

Kingston

Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 132,485 (2021 census), 123,798 (2016 census). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the  Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the  Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.

Article

Halton Hills

Halton Hills, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 62,951 (2021 census), 61,161 (2016 census). Halton Hills is located approximately 45 km west of Toronto and was created by the amalgamation of Acton, Georgetown and Esquesing Township. The town also encompasses several hamlets — Ballinafad, Glen Williams, Stewarttown, Limehouse, Glen Lawson, Speyside, Ashgrove, Crewson’s Corners, Bannockburn, Henderson’s Corners, Whaley’s Corners, Mansewood, Hornby, Silver Creek, Terra Cotta and Norval. From 1926 to 1935, Norval was home to Lucy Maud Montgomery, author of Anne of Green Gables.

Article

Self-Governing First Nations in Yukon

There are 14 First Nations in Yukon. Eleven of these nations are self-governing, while the remaining three are governed under the Indian Act. The 11 self-governing First Nations have legislative and executive powers much like a province or territory. In 1993, they signed the Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA) with the governments of Canada and Yukon. The UFA served as the foundation for individual self-governing agreements made between each First Nation and the territorial and federal governments. These individual agreements were signed between 1993 and 2006. (See also Comprehensive Land Claims.) While the focus of this article is the 11 self-governing First Nations, the remaining three First Nations in Yukon are White River, Liard and Ross River.

Article

Dresden

Dresden, Ontario, population centre, population 2,401 (2021 census), 2,451 (2016 census). Incorporated as a town in 1882, Dresden lost this status in 1998 after it merged into the new municipality of Chatham-Kent. Dresden is an agricultural community located in southwestern Ontario on the Sydenham River. The Dawn Settlement, near Dresden, was one of the final destinations of the Underground Railroad. In the mid-20th century, some businesses in Dresden became infamous for refusing to serve Black Canadians (see Racial Segregation of Black People).

Article

Yukon

The name Yukon comes from the Gwich’in word Yu-kun-ah meaning "great river" and is a reference to the Yukon River. Lying in the northwestern corner of Canada and isolated by rugged mountains, the Yukon borders Alaska to the west, British Columbia to the south and the Northwest Territories to the east. Historically, it is indelibly associated with the great Klondike Gold Rush.

Article

Regina

Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1882, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 215,106 (2016 c), 193,100 (2011 c). The City of Regina is the capital, commercial and financial centre of Saskatchewan. Regina is situated 160 km north of the United States border. The city is set in a wide, level alluvial plain. It was named for Queen Victoria, mother-in-law of the Marquess of Lorne, governor general at the time of the city’s founding.

Article

Cupids

Cupids, Newfoundland and Labrador, incorporated as a town in 1965, population 743 (2016 census), 761 (2011 census). The town of Cupids is located in southwest Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula, about 80 km west of St. John's. Originally known as Cupers Cove (1610), other early variants of the name include Cuperts Cove and Kibby's Cove. However, the name Cupids Cove appears quite early: Sir William Alexander referred to it by this name in his An Encouragement to Colonies (1624). No one knows the origin of the name, but it may be an anglicized version of a Spanish or Basque name.

Article

Kitimat

Kitimat, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1953, population 8,236 (2021 census), 8,131 (2016 census). The district of Kitimat is located at the head of the Douglas Channel, 206 km east of Prince Rupert by road. Its name comes from the Tsimshian term for the Haisla inhabitants of the area, Kitamaat (“people of the snow”). The modern community was founded in the early 1950s.

Article

Cambridge

Cambridge, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1973, population 138,479 (2021 census), 129,920 (2016 census). Cambridge is located within Waterloo Region and along the Grand River. It was created through the amalgamation of the City of Galt, the Towns of Preston and Hespeler, and parts of North Dumfries and Waterloo townships.

Throughout history, the Cambridge area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Neutral, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe. The land is covered by the Haldimand Proclamation.

Article

Fort Nelson

Fort Nelson, BC, population centre, population 2,611 (2021 census), 3,371 (2016 census). Fort Nelson is the service centre for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM). The NRRM is made up of a number of communities, of which Fort Nelson is the largest. Fort Nelson is located in the northeast corner of British Columbia, near the confluence of three rivers: Muskwa, Prophet and Sikanni Chief. Together these rivers combine to become the Fort Nelson River. The community is 387 km north of Fort St. John. It was named after British Admiral Horatio Nelson, famous for the Battle of Trafalgar. Incorporated as a town in 1987, Fort Nelson became a part of the NRRM in 2009.

Article

Squamish

Squamish, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1964, population 23,819 (2021 census), 19,497 (2016 census). The district of Squamish is located 70 km north of Vancouver at the head of Howe Sound. The municipality is governed by a mayor and six councillors. It is the service centre for a richly endowed recreational area, with road, rail and water access to Vancouver.

Article

Reserves in Nova Scotia

There are 42 reserves in Nova Scotia, held by 13 First Nations (see First Nations in Nova Scotia). Nova Scotia is one of just two provinces, the other being Prince Edward Island, that is part of the traditional territory of only one Indigenous people. In both cases, it is the Mi'kmaq. In 2020, there were 17,895 registered Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia, about 63 per cent of whom (11,202 people) lived on reserve. Reserves in Nova Scotia vary in size from over 3,500 hectares to less than one, though almost every First Nation has more than one land tract.

Article

Writing-On-Stone Provincial Park

Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park is located in southern Alberta, just north of the Canada-US border. To the Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot Nation), the site is known as Áísínai’pi, which means “it is pictured” or “it is written” in the Blackfoot language. The park features thousands of rock paintings and carvings created by the Siksikaitsitapi, most of which date to 1050 BCE. Established as a provincial park in 1957, Áísínai’pi was designated a National Historic Site in 2004, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2019.

Article

Quebec City Mosque Shooting

The Quebec City mosque shooting took place in 2017 at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City, located in the suburb of Sainte-Foy. The gunman pleaded guilty to six counts of first-degree murder and six counts of attempted murder. It was one of the deadliest mass shootings in Canadian history, described as an act of terrorism by both Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Quebec Premier Philippe Couillard. The event prompted widespread public debate around Islamophobia, racism and the rise of right-wing terrorism in Canada.