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Ajax

Ajax, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1955, population 119,677 (2016 census), 109,600 (2011 census). The town of Ajax is located 13 km from the eastern boundary of Toronto on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Ajax became part of the Regional Municipality of Durham in October 1973. In January 1974, Ajax expanded to include the village of Pickering (incorporated 1953) and part of Pickering Township.

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Amherstburg

Amherstburg, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1878, population 21,936 (2016 census), 21,556 (2011 census). The town of Amherstburg is located on the Detroit River near Lake Erie. It is located on the traditional territory of the Three Fires Confederacy, which includes OjibweOdawa and Potawatomi peoples (see also Anishinaabe). The land is covered by Treaty 35. During the 1850s, Amherstburg was a principal terminus of the Underground Railroad.

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Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe)

The Kainai (G-ai-nah) Nation, otherwise known as the Blood Tribe, is a First Nation based in southern Alberta. Kainai Nation holds two reserves, Blood 148 and Blood 148A. Blood 148, the nation’s primary reserve, is the largest First Nation reserve by area in Canada. It covers 1,342.9 km², and is located southwest of the city of Lethbridge, north of the town of Cardston, and east of Pincher Creek. The nation’s second reserve is known as a “timber limit” and is used for hunting and fishing. As of 2020, there are 8,517 people living on the primary reserve, making it one of the most populous reserves in Canada. In total, Kainai Nation has 12,693 registered band members. (See also Reserves in Alberta.)

The Kainai Nation is a signatory to Treaty 7. Mi’k ai’stoowa (Red Crow) signed on behalf of the nation in 1877. (See also History of Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe).)

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St. Paul

St. Paul, Alberta, incorporated as a town in 1936, population 5,827 (2016 census), 5,405 (2011 census). The town of St. Paul, county seat for the county of St. Paul, is located on the north shore of Upper Thérien Lake, about 200 km northeast of Edmonton.

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Cold Lake

Cold Lake, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 2000, population 14,961 (2016 census), 13,839 (2011 census). The city of Cold Lake is located on a lake of the same name, 290 km northeast of Edmonton. The  Cree called the lake “Kinosoo” or “big fish” after a Cree legend. European settlers named the lake for its deep, cold water.

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Gimli

Gimli, Manitoba, rural municipality, population 6,181 (2016 census), 5,845 (2011 census). Gimli was incorporated as a town from 1947 to 2003 after which it was reunited into the Rural Municipality of Gimli. (The original rural municipality was incorporated in 1887 and the village of Gimli separated from it in 1908.) The community is located on the west shore of Lake Winnipeg, 76 km north of Winnipeg.

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Human Settlement in Canada

A human settlement is a place where people live. Settlement patterns describe the ways in which villages, towns, cities and First Nation reserves are distributed, as well as the factors that influence this arrangement. Throughout Canadian history, climate, natural resources, transportation methods and government policy have affected human settlement in the country. Today, the majority of Canadians live in cities in the southern portion of the country. (See also Human Geography and Canada.)

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Brossard

Brossard, Quebec, population 85,721 (2016 census), 79,273 (2011 census). Incorporated as a city in 1978, from 2002 to 2006 Brossard was a borough of Longueuil. Longueil was created by the amalgamation of eight distinct municipalities, including Brossard. In a 2004 referendum, Brossard residents voted to reconstitute their city. In 2006, Brossard again became its own municipality. Brossard is located on the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River, a short distance from the Champlain Bridge that links it to Montreal.

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Quesnel

Quesnel, BC, incorporated as a city in 1928, population 10 007 (2011c), 9326 (2006c). The City of Quesnel is located at the junction of the Quesnel and Fraser rivers in central British Columbia, 625 km northeast of Vancouver.

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Metchosin

Metchosin, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1984, population 4,708 (2016 census), 4,803 (2011 census). The District of Metchosin is located on Vancouver Island. It overlooks the Juan de Fuca Strait. Metchosin is part of the Greater Victoria area. From the late 1800s to 1958, a quarantine station operated at William Head in Metchosin. Many immigrants arriving to Canada by ship were quarantined at William Head before being allowed to enter the country. This was done in an effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases common on overcrowded ships. In addition, from 1924 to 1956, there was a leper colony on nearby Bentinck Island.

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Lunenburg

Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, incorporated as a town in 1888, population 2,263 (2016 census), 2,313 (2011 census). The town of Lunenburg, the seat of Lunenburg County, is located on Lunenburg Bay, 90 km southwest of Halifax.

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Dartmouth

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, metropolitan area, population (including Cole Harbour) 92,301 (2016 census), 91,212 (2011 census). Dartmouth is located on the eastern side of Halifax Harbour in the Halifax Regional Municipality (incorporated in 1996).

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Quill Lakes

The Quill Lakes are three connected saline lakes in southeastern Saskatchewan. They are located 150 km north of Regina and 152 km east of Saskatoon. From west to east the lakes are named Big Quill, Middle Quill (also known as Mud Lake) and Little Quill. Despite its name, at 181 km2 Little Quill is the second largest of the three lakes. Big Quill is the largest at 307 km2. The Quill Lakes’ elevation is 516 m.

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Vaughan

Vaughan, ON, incorporated as a city in 1991, population 306,233 (2016 c), 288,301 (2011 c). The City of Vaughan — which includes the five constituent communities of Maple, Kleinburg, Concord, Woodbridge and part of Thornhill — is located in the York regional municipality, next to the northwest boundary of metropolitan Toronto. Traditionally an agricultural and milling community, Vaughan’s economy diversified over the latter half of the 20th century as immigration increased and the township developed into a city. Today, Vaughan is a multicultural community with a growing metropolitan core.

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Music in Kitchener-Waterloo

Twin cities in southwestern Ontario. In both, a significant proportion of the population has always been of German and Mennonite stock. Kitchener, the larger of the two cities, was called Ebytown until 1824 and Berlin until 1916.

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Lac La Biche

Lac La Biche, Alberta, incorporated as a municipal district in 2007, population 8,330 (2016 census), 8,402 (2011 census). Lac La Biche County is located 225 km northeast of Edmonton on the south shore of the lake of the same name. Incorporated as a town in 1951, Lac La Biche amalgamated with Lakeland County in 2007 to create Lac La Biche County.

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Partridge Island

Partridge Island is located in the Bay of Fundy, about 1 km from the shoreline and the city of Saint John, New Brunswick. The island was set aside as a quarantine station in 1785 and operated as such between 1830 and 1941. Many immigrants arriving to Canada by ship, including thousands of  Irish in 1847, were isolated on the island before being allowed to enter the country. This was done in an effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases common on overcrowded vessels. In 1974, the Partridge Island quarantine station was designated a national historic site. Other important events are associated with the island, including the installation of the world’s first steam-operated fog alarm in 1859 (see also Robert Foulis).

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