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Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. The crust, also known as the North American Craton, extends from northern Mexico to Greenland and consists of hard rocks at least 1 billion years old. With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. At 5 million km2, the Shield makes up roughly 50 per cent of Canada’s land mass. Shaped like a horseshoe — or the shields carried during hand-to-hand combat — the Canadian Shield extends from Labrador in the east to include nearly all of Québec, much of Ontario and Manitoba, the northern portion of Saskatchewan, the northeast corner of Alberta, much of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and into the Arctic Archipelago. (It also reaches into parts of the United States, in New York, Wisconsin and Minnesota.) While at times a barrier to settlement, the Shield has also yielded great resources, including minerals, coniferous forests and the capacity for hydroelectric developments.

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Selwyn Mountains

The northern Selwyn Mountains lie to the east of the Yukon-NWT border, and the southern section straddles the border south from the Macmillan Pass to the South Nahanni River.

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Sydney Mines

Sydney Mines, NS, Urban Community, population 14 135 (2011c), 15 315 (2006c). Sydney Mines is located on the north side of Sydney Harbour, 19 km from SYDNEY.

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Spruce Grove

Spruce Grove, Alta, incorporated as a city in 1986, population 26 171 (2011c), 19 541 (2006c). The City of Spruce Grove is located just west of Edmonton and is the eastern neighbour of the town STONY PLAIN. French and Scottish settlers arrived in 1891.

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Springfield

Springfield, Manitoba, incorporated as a rural municipality in 1873, population 14 069 (2011c), 12 990 (2006c).

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Stephenville

Stephenville, NL, incorporated as a town in 1952, population 6719 (2011c), 6588 (2006c). The Town of Stephenville is located on the north shore of St George's Bay in southwestern Newfoundland.

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Stettler

Stettler, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1906, population 5748 (2011c), 5445 (2006c). The Town of Stettler, the county seat for County of Stettler, is located on the rolling prairie of south-central Alberta 203 km southeast of Edmonton on a creek flowing north to the Battle River.

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Spallumcheen

Spallumcheen, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1892, population 5055 (2011c), 4960 (2006c). The Township of Spallumcheen is located about seven kilometres north of VERNON and completely encloses the city of ARMSTRONG.

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Spitsbergen

Spitsbergen is a bleak Norwegian island group only 965 km from the North Pole. It became strategically significant in WWII when Germany attacked the USSR in June 1941.

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Shawinigan

After 1825 the government of Lower Canada had the territory of the Mauricie region surveyed. The first concessions were given out in 1831. Shawinigan was first the site of a waterslide (1852) built so that log booms could be sent downstream to Trois-Rivières.

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Témiscaming

Témiscaming, Qué, Town, pop 2697 (2006c), 2903 (2001c), inc 1988. Témiscaming is located at the southern end of Lac Témiscamingue (spelled TIMISKAMING in Ontario) near the rapids that link the lake with the Ottawa River. In 1888 a sawmill was built nearby.

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Souris River

Souris River, about 720 km long, rises in the Yellow Grass marshes N of Weyburn, Sask, flows SE past Estevan and wanders S across the N Dakota border before entering Manitoba.

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Souris (Man)

Souris, Manitoba, incorporated as a town in 1903, population 1837 (2011c), 1772 (2006c). The Town of Souris is located at the junction of Plum Creek and the SOURIS RIVER, 45 km by road southwest of Brandon.

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South Nahanni River

South Nahanni River, 563 km long, flows southeast out of the Ragged Range of the Selwyn Mountains, cuts across successive spines of the Mackenzie Mountains and empties into the Liard River.

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Southampton Island

Southampton Island, 41 214 km2, is situated between FOXE BASIN and HUDSON BAY. It combines the 2 basic regional relief types. Its north and northeast consist of undulating highlands of Precambrian SHIELD rocks, reaching

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Springhill

Springhill, NS, incorporated as a town in 1889, population 3868 (2011c), 3941 (2006c). The Town of Springhill, located in the heart of Cumberland County on the Chignecto Isthmus.

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