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Amadjuak Lake

Amadjuak Lake, 3115 km2, elevation 113 m, is one of 2 lakes situated in the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak in south-central Baffin Island. This lower-lying area only emerged recently (in geological terms) from beneath the waters of Foxe Basin. Amadjuak Lake is the third-largest in Nunavut.


Rivière Moisie

Rivière Moisie, 410 km long, rises in eastern Québec from Lac Opocopa and flows south to the St. Lawrence River. With a drainage basin of 19,200 km2 and a mean discharge of 490 m3/s, it is the river of greatest volume along the middle north Shore of the St. Lawrence.



Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 123,798 (2016 c), 123,363 (2011 c). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.


Camp X

Camp X — a popular name that reflects the secrecy surrounding its activities — was a training school for covert agents and a radio communications centre that operated close to Whitby, Ontario, during the Second World War. It was the first such purpose-built facility constructed in North America. Known officially as STS (Special Training School) 103, Camp X was one of several dozen around the world that served the needs of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), the British agency created in 1940 to “set Europe ablaze” by promoting sabotage and subversion behind enemy lines. The radio communications centre, with its high-speed transmitter known as Hydra, was closely linked with British Security Co-Ordination (BSC), the New York-based agency directed by the Winnipeg-born businessman William Stephenson. Soviet defector Igor Gouzenko was hidden there after his defection in September 1945.


Medicine Hat

Medicine Hat, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1906, population 63,260 (2016 census), 60,005 (2011 census). The city of Medicine Hat is one of Alberta's largest cities. It is located on the Canadian Pacific Railway main line and the Trans-Canada Highway in the southeastern corner of the province, bisected by the South Saskatchewan River. Canada's “sunniest” city, Medicine Hat averages 330 days of sunshine per year. A council of eight councillors and a mayor govern the city.


Oak Bay

Oak Bay, incorporated as a district municipality in 1906, population 18 015 (2011c), 17 908 (2006c). The District of Oak Bay is located on the southeast corner of VANCOUVER ISLAND, adjoining the city of VICTORIA. It is surrounded by JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT on the south and Haro Strait on the east.


Cobalt (Ont)

Cobalt, Ont, incorporated as a town in 1907, population 1133 (2011c), 1224 (2006c). The Town of Cobalt, located about 480 km north of Toronto near the Québec border and Lake Timiskaming, lies between the clay belt to the north around New Liskeard and the heavily forested area of Temagami to the south.



Leduc, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1906 and as a city in 1983, population 24 279 (2011c), 16 967 (2006c). The City of Leduc is located 30 km south of EDMONTON. Originally a telegraph terminus and stop on the Calgary and Edmonton Railway (1891), the community grew as an agricultural centre.


Rebellion in Upper Canada

The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the uprising earlier that year in Lower Canada. However, its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were equally serious in their demands. They wanted democratic reform and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. The rebellion itself failed, but its very failure helped pave the way for moderate and careful political change in British North America. This included the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada and the eventual introduction of responsible government.


Quebec Act, 1774

The Quebec Act received royal assent on 22 June 1774. It revoked the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which had aimed to assimilate the French-Canadian population under English rule. The Quebec Act was put into effect on 1 May 1775. It was passed to gain the loyalty of the French-speaking majority of the Province of Quebec. Based on recommendations from Governors James Murray and Guy Carleton, the Act guaranteed the freedom of worship and restored French property rights. However, the Act had dire consequences for Britain’s North American empire. Considered one of the five “Intolerable Acts” by the Thirteen American Colonies, the Quebec Act was one of the direct causes of the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). It was followed by the Constitutional Act in 1791.

This is the full-length entry about the Quebec Act of 1774. For a plain language summary, please see The Quebec Act, 1774 (Plain-Language Summary).


Île de la Grande Entrée

Île de la Grande Entrée, Qué, is situated almost in the middle of the Gulf of ST LAWRENCE and flanked in the north by Île d' ANTICOSTI, in the south by PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND and on the east by CABOT STRAIT. It is one of the 16 islands and islets comprising Îles-de-la-MADELEINE.



Ontario is Canada's most populous and second-largest province. It stretches from Canada's southernmost point at Middle Island in Lake Erie in the south, to the Manitoba-Ontario border on Hudson Bay in the north, and from the banks of the St. Lawrence River in the east, to the Manitoba border in the west.


St Thomas

  St Thomas, Ont, incorporated as a city in 1881, seat of Elgin County, population 37 905 (2011c), 36 110 (2006c). The City of St Thomas is located in southwestern Ontario, 29 km south of London. In 1803 Thomas TALBOT began to place settlers on a large tract of land he owned N of Lake Erie.


Stony Plain

Stony Plain, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1908, population 15 051 (2011c), 12 363 (2006c). The Town of Stony Plain is located about 25 km west of EDMONTON. Settlement began in 1881 about 3 km south of the present town. This settlement was called Dogrump Creek but in 1892 was renamed Stony Plain.


Geography of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is divided by two of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These two regions are the Interior Plains and the Canadian Shield. The Canadian Shield is characterized by rugged rock exposures and many lakes. It also includes a sandy region south of Lake Athabasca. South of the Canadian Shield is the area commonly called the “grain belt.” It is characterized by level or gently rolling plains and fertile soils. Saskatchewan is known as one of the world’s great wheat producers.

On the western boundary and across the southwest corner is another plains region of generally higher altitudes. Its rolling and hilly terrain is distinct from that of the grain belt. The extreme southwest the province shares the Cypress Hills with Alberta. The Cypress Hills are the highest point of land in Canada between the Rocky Mountains and Labrador.


Toronto Feature: Mimico Creek

This text is from the free Toronto in Time app, which was created by The Canadian Encyclopedia and is available from the App Store and the Google Play store. Visit its companion website, which is linked below, to explore all the features of the app online.


Continental Divides in Canada

A continental divide is a ridge or natural boundary of elevated terrain that separates the drainage basins of a continent. Each drainage basin contributes its water to river systems, which in turn flow into distinct larger bodies of water, such as oceans. The main continental divide in Canada follows the ridge of the Rocky Mountains.