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Shawinigan

After 1825 the government of Lower Canada had the territory of the Mauricie region surveyed. The first concessions were given out in 1831. Shawinigan was first the site of a waterslide (1852) built so that log booms could be sent downstream to Trois-Rivières.

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Music at Bishop's University

Bishop's University. Founded in 1843 in Lennoxville, near Sherbrooke, Que, by George Jehoshaphat Mountain, the third Anglican bishop of Quebec, as a liberal arts college. Its foundation was ratified by an act of the Quebec Legislative Assembly.

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Surrey

Surrey, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1993, population 517,887 (2016 census), 468, 251 (2011 census). The city of Surrey is the second-largest municipality by population in British Columbia, after Vancouver. Part of Metro Vancouver, it is bounded by the Fraser River on the north and Washington state on the south. The municipalities of Langley and Delta lie to the east and west.

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Wapusk National Park

Wapusk National Park (11 475.0 km2) became part of Canada's national parks system on 24 April 1996 when a federal-provincial agreement was signed providing for its establishment.

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Leitch Collieries

Leitch Collieries, an Alberta provincial HISTORIC SITE, is located near the entrance to the municipality of CROWSNEST PASS. This mine site is now abandoned, but in 1907, when it opened, it was considered one of the most advanced and up-to-date coal and coke operations in Canada.

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Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe)

The Kainai (G-ai-nah) Nation, otherwise known as the Blood Tribe, is a First Nation based in southern Alberta. Kainai Nation holds two reserves, Blood 148 and Blood 148A. Blood 148, the nation’s primary reserve, is the largest First Nation reserve by area in Canada. It covers 1,342.9 km², and is located southwest of the city of Lethbridge, north of the town of Cardston, and east of Pincher Creek. The nation’s second reserve is known as a “timber limit” and is used for hunting and fishing. As of 2021, there are 8,517 people living on the primary reserve, making it one of the most populous reserves in Canada. In total, Kainai Nation has 12,738 registered band members. (See also Reserves in Alberta.)

The Kainai Nation is a signatory to Treaty 7. Mi’k ai’stoowa (Red Crow) signed on behalf of the nation in 1877. ( See also History of Kainai Nation (Blood Tribe).)

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Val-des-Sources (Asbestos)

Val-des-Sources (formerly Asbestos), Quebec, incorporated as a village in 1899 and as a town in 1937, population 6,786 (2016 census), 7,096 (2011 census). The town of Val-des-Sources is located in the Eastern Townships region, 53 km north of Sherbrooke and 58 km southeast of Drummondville. Originally called Asbestos, the town was named after the mineral mined there from 1881 to 2011. During that time, Asbestos produced much of the world’s supply of the asbestos mineral, which is now banned in many countries because of its negative health effects. Asbestos was renamed Val-des-Sources in December 2020. Val-des-Sources is located on ancestral Abenaki lands. The land is unceded and is considered Indigenous territory.

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Victoria (BC)

Victoria, BC, incorporated as a city in 1862, population 91,867 (2021 census), 85,792 (2016 census). The capital of British Columbia, the City of Victoria is situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, about 100 km south of Vancouver. Occupying a peninsular site, Victoria is bordered by the Juan de Fuca and Haro straits. In addition, the Olympic Mountains lie to the south, the San Juan Islands to the east, and the fjord-like Saanich Inlet and richly forested Malahat Ridge and Sooke Hills to the west. Greater Victoria lies within the Capital Regional District (CRD), a federation comprising the following incorporated areas: the cities of Victoria, Colwood and Langford; the towns of Sidney and View Royal; and the municipalities of Saanich, Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Central Saanich, North Saanich, Sooke, Metchosin and Highlands. The CRD also includes the electoral areas of Juan de Fuca, the Southern Gulf Islands and Saltspring Island.

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Esquimalt

Esquimalt, BC, incorporated as a district municipality in 1912, population 16 209 (2011c), 16 840 (2006c). The Township of Esquimalt is located on the southern tip of VANCOUVER ISLAND adjacent to VICTORIA.

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Acadian Expulsion (Plain-Language Summary)

The original Acadians were from France. Acadia is now part of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The French first began settling in Acadia during the first decade of the 17th century. In 1713, the British took over Acadia. They expelled the Acadians in the 1750s. The British did not trust the Acadians. The expulsion of the Acadians is also known as the Great Upheaval. The expulsion of the Acadians was tragic. In the 1760s, the British let the Acadians come back. Acadia remains alive and well today in the Maritimes. Thousands of Canadians are the descendants of the Acadians.

(This article is a plain-language summary of the Acadian Expulsion. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Acadian Expulsion (The Great Upheaval).)

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta, held by the province’s 47 First Nations (see also First Nations in Alberta). In addition, two First Nations — Salt River and Onion Lake Cree — are based in other provinces or territories, but have reserve land in Alberta. In 2020, there were 133,051 Registered Indians living in Alberta, 60 per cent of whom lived on reserves. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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Prud'homme

Prud'homme, Saskatchewan, incorporated as a village in 1922, population 167 (2016 census), 172 (2011 census). The village of Prud'homme is located about 45 km northeast of Saskatoon. Prud'homme is the hometown of Jeanne Sauvé, a former cabinet minister in the Pierre Trudeau government, the first woman to hold the position of Speaker of the House of Commons and the first woman to act as Governor General of Canada.

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Doak Historic Site

Doak Historic Site is in Doaktown, NB, 94 km northeast of Fredericton. Robert Doak left Ayrshire in Scotland to take up land on the upper MIRAMICHI RIVER in New Brunswick in the early 1820s.