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Mistaken Point

Mistaken Point was designated as Canada’s 18th World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2016. It is located in southeastern Newfoundland. Mistaken Point is the oldest grouping of large, biologically complex fossilized creatures found anywhere in the world. The fossils date from 580 to 560 million years ago, when large, multicellular organisms began to appear. Mistaken Point was the fifth Canadian fossil site to be recognized by UNESCO, following Dinosaur Provincial Park (1979), Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks (1984), Miguasha National Park (1999) and Joggins Fossil Cliffs (2008).

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Mount Royal

Mount Royal is a short mountain with a wide base covering ten square kilometres. It is close to the geographic centre of the Island of Montreal. Mount Royal is Montreal’s defining physical feature and a protected site; it was designated a Historic and Natural District by the government of Quebec in 2005. By law, new buildings in Montreal may not be taller than Mount Royal. The mountain occupies a central position, not only in the urban landscape of the city of Montreal, but also in its history, culture and society.

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Gulf of St Lawrence

Gulf of St Lawrence, a large (250 000 km2), roughly triangular inland sea receiving on average 10 100 m3/s of fresh water from the St Lawrence River at its northwest apex, is connected to the Atlantic by the Strait of Belle Isle at the northeast and Cabot Strait at the southeast corners.

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta. Members of Alberta’s 47 First Nations live in these communities. In addition, two First Nations — Salt River and Onion Lake Cree — are based in other provinces or territories, but have reserve land in Alberta. In 2019, there were 131,697 registered Indians living in Alberta, 58 per cent of whom lived on reserves. The remainder live in other municipalities. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on Treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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Winnipeg

Winnipeg, Manitoba, incorporated as a city in 1873, population 705,244 (2016 c), 663,617 (2011 c). The city of Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, and is located at the confluence of the Red River and Assiniboine River 100 km north of the Minnesota border. The name is derived from the Cree name for Lake Winnipeg, 65 km north, win-nipi, meaning "murky water." Winnipeg is an important economic and cultural centre for the Prairies. Lying midway between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, it has been called "Bull's Eye of the Dominion," and because of its location between the Canadian Shield and the prairie, "Gateway to the West."

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St. John's

St. John's, NL, incorporated as a city in 1921, population 108,860 (2016 c), 106,172 (2011 c). The capital and largest city of Newfoundland and Labrador, the city of St. John's is located on the eastern side of the Avalon Peninsula of southeast Newfoundland. Its landlocked harbour is approached through a long, narrow channel and is protected by the high hills on which the city is built. The origin of the name St. John's is not known, but its use appears on a Portuguese map by Pedro Reinel (1516–20) as "Rio de San Johem" and later, in a 1527 letter by the English seaman John Rut, as the "Haven of St. John's." According to popular folklore, however, the city takes its name from the feast of Saint John the Baptist and the arrival of Italian explorer Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) on the shores of Newfoundland on 24 June 1497.

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Notikewin Provincial Park

Interest from local residents led to the establishment of Notikewin Provincial Park (established 1979, 97 km2). Here is preserved a small piece of the quintessential natural landscape of northern Alberta, the once endless poplar and spruce forests deeply dissected by moody rivers.

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Beaumont

Beaumont, Alberta, incorporated as a village in 1973, as a town in 1980 and as a city in 2019, population 17,396 (2016 census), 13,284 (2011 census). The city of Beaumont is located immediately south of Edmonton’s city boundary.

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National Parks of Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

Canada has 48 national parks. They were created and are run by the federal government. The national parks cover a vast amount of land — about 340,000 km2. This is about 3 per cent of Canada’s landmass. National parks serve two purposes. The first purpose is to preserve and protect nature. The second purpose is to give Canadians the chance to enjoy some of the country’s most beautiful and important natural settings. Millions of Canadians visit national parks every year.

(This article is a plain-language summary of National Parks. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, National Parks of Canada.)

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Kazan River

Kazan River, 850 km long, rises near Kasba Lake in southern Nunavut near the Saskatchewan border. Flowing north it follows an irregular course through several lakes, draining a large part of the Barren Lands.

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Peace River

Peace River, 1,923 km long, is one of the principal tributaries of the Mackenzie River system. The name of the river refers to a settlement between Cree and Dane-Zaa (Beaver) warring parties around 1781 at Peace Point at the lower portion of the river. The Dane-Zaa word for the river is unchaga, meaning “big river”; the Cree word for the settlement there is sâkitawâhk.

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Ferryland Archaeological Site

The lowest levels have revealed campsites of the Beothuk, Newfoundland's now-extinct Native people. At the same levels evidence of European fishermen from Spain, Portugal, the Basque Provinces, Brittany and West Country England have been found.

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West Coast Trail

West Coast Trail, on W coast of VANCOUVER I, follows the 72 km route of the historic lifesaving trail between the communities of Bamfield and Port Renfrew, BC.

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Lac Saint-Jean

The Kakouchaks, the local population of Innu, began trading with the Europeans at TADOUSSAC in the 16th century. Later, Lac Saint-Jean was made part of the King's Domain (1674), land reserved for trapping and farmed out to interested parties; a first trading post was built at Métabetchouane in 1676.

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Fort Michilimackinac

Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan) refers to three distinct military posts at the Straits of Mackinac between lakes Huron and Michigan. French explorers arrived by 1634, establishing a mission on the north mainland in 1671 and a fort in 1690 (St Ignace, Mich).

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Eskimo Lakes

Eskimo Lakes, 880 km2, lie along the southern edge of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, NWT, and drain into Liverpool Bay on the Beaufort Sea. They are tidal lakes, with tide heights averaging 2 m, and occupy a fault zone separating geological blocks.