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Hamilton

Hamilton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1846, population 536,917 (2016 c), 519,949 (2011 c). The City of Hamilton is situated at the west end of Lake Ontario, on Burlington Bay, 68 km southwest of Toronto, and 66 km west of Niagara Falls and the American border. As part of the reorganization of municipal governments in Ontario, the boundaries of the city were enlarged in 2001 to include much of the surrounding suburban and rural area, including the former towns of Ancaster, Dundas, Flamborough and Stoney Creek, and the former township of Glanbrook. The city is Canada's largest steel producer and a major Great Lakes port.

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Champlain Sea

The Champlain Sea is a body of saline to brackish water 55 000 km2 that occupied the depressed land of the ST LAWRENCE LOWLAND between Québec City and Brockville, Ont, and extended up the Ottawa River Valley during the late glacial period 12 000 to 10 000 years ago (seeGLACIATION).

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Coaticook

Like most localities in the Eastern Townships, the history of Coaticook starts out in English and ends up in French. The early pioneers were for the most part of American or British origin. The town's founder was Richard Baldwin, Sr, who built a house there in 1830.

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North Bay

North Bay, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1925, population 51,553 (2016 census), 53,651 (2011 census). North Bay is located on a northeastern bay of Lake Nipissing, at the junction of highways 11 and 17, some 345 km north of Toronto and 365 km northwest of Ottawa. As the traditional "Gateway to the North," the city is the administrative seat for the District of Nipissing.

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Columbia Icefield

The Columbia Icefield is a mass of ice covering a high plateau between Mount Columbia (3747 m), the highest point in Alberta, and Mount Athabasca (3491 m), located between Banff and Jasper national parks, along the BC-Alberta border.

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Cumberland House

The construction of Cumberland House in 1774 marked a change in HBC policy, which had hitherto expected Indigenous people to bring their furs to the bay posts to trade.

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Historic Dunvegan

One of the most important fur trade sites on the PEACE RIVER, a post operated at Dunvegan from 1805 to 1918. The first post was built by Archibald Norman McLeod of the North West Company to trade with the BEAVER and other First Nations who lived in the middle and upper reaches of the Peace River.

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Monument-National

Its 1620-seat theatre, which boasted an orchestra pit, was inaugurated in 1893 while still uncompleted. In the ensuing years it welcomed innumerable solo artists, opera companies, and other musical troupes and ensembles.

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Sirmilik National Park

Located on northern Baffin Island in Canada's High Arctic, Sirmilik National Park (agreement signed 1999; 22 250 km2) is one of Canada's isolated and most spectacular national parks. Sirmilik is an Inuktitut word that means "place of glaciers."

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Physiographic Regions

Canada may be divided into seven physiographic regions: Arctic Lands, Cordillera, Interior Plains, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canadian Shield Forest Lands, St Lawrence Lowlands and Appalachia.

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Largest Cities in Canada by Population

Since the Second World War, Canadians have become increasingly urban, living primarily in cities. In an attempt to keep housing affordable, local governments have needed to balance burgeoning borders with urban density. Canada’s ten largest cities offer a glimpse at the many approaches and issues.

All populations are from the 2016 Canadian census and reflect the cities proper, as opposed to the larger census metropolitan area.

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Toronto Feature: Budapest Park

This text is from the free Toronto in Time app, which was created by The Canadian Encyclopedia and is available from the App Store and the Google Play store. Visit its companion website, which is linked below, to explore all the features of the app online.

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Metchosin

Metchosin, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1984, population 4,708 (2016 census), 4,803 (2011 census). The District of Metchosin is located on Vancouver Island. It overlooks the Juan de Fuca Strait. Metchosin is part of the Greater Victoria area. From the late 1800s to 1958, a quarantine station operated at William Head in Metchosin. Many immigrants arriving to Canada by ship were quarantined at William Head before being allowed to enter the country. This was done in an effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases common on overcrowded ships. In addition, from 1924 to 1956, there was a leper colony on nearby Bentinck Island.

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Partridge Island

Partridge Island is located in the Bay of Fundy, about 1 km from the shoreline and the city of Saint John, New Brunswick. The island was set aside as a quarantine station in 1785 and operated as such between 1830 and 1941. Many immigrants arriving to Canada by ship, including thousands of  Irish in 1847, were isolated on the island before being allowed to enter the country. This was done in an effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases common on overcrowded vessels. In 1974, the Partridge Island quarantine station was designated a national historic site. Other important events are associated with the island, including the installation of the world’s first steam-operated fog alarm in 1859 (see also Robert Foulis).

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Niagara-on-the-Lake

Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1792 and reincorporated in 1970, population 17,511 (2016 census), 15,400 (2011 census). The town of Niagara-on-the-Lake is located where the Niagara River enters Lake Ontario. In 1970, the old town of Niagara-on-the-Lake joined the Township of Niagara. The township included the villages of Virgil, Queenston, St. Davids, Homer and McNab. Together they became a regional town retaining the name Niagara-on-the-Lake.

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Thetford Mines

Thetford Mines, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 1905, population 16,174 (2016 census), 16,440 (2011 census). The city of Thetford Mines is located on the Bécancour River in the Appalachian Mountains, 107 km south of Quebec City. It was named after the town of Thetford in Norfolk, England. During the 20th century, it was one of the world’s largest asbestos mining and production centres.

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Pintendre

Pintendre, Quebec, population 7,171 (2019), 6,209 (2001 census). Originally incorporated in 1901, Pintendre is now part of Lévis since 2002. The area is located on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River. Pintendre is situated on the agricultural plain next to the Appalachian mountains. (See Mountain Range.) Three rivers flow through the area’s boundaries: Etchemin, la Scie and des Couture.