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Haldimand County

Haldimand County, Ont, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 44 876 (2011c), 45 212 (2006c). The City of Haldimand County is situated on the north shore of LAKE ERIE along the GRAND RIVER, 20 km south of HAMILTON.


Editorial: The Arrival of Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia

“Freedom and a Farm.” The promise was exciting to the thousands of African Americans, most seeking to escape enslavement, who fought in British regiments during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). Following the war, they joined tens of thousands of Loyalists — American refugees who had sided with the British. Between 80,000 and 100,000 Loyalists eventually fled the United States. About half came to British North America. The main waves arrived in 1783 and 1784. The territory that now includes the Maritime provinces became home to more than 30,000 Loyalists. Most of coastal Nova Scotia received Loyalist settlers, as did Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island (then called St. John’s Island).


Leaf Rapids

Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 453 (2011c), 539 (2006c). The Town of Leaf Rapids is a mining community located 3 km south of the CHURCHILL RIVER on the Canadian Shield and 976 km northwest of Winnipeg.


Lake of the Woods

Lake of the Woods, 4350 km2 (of which 3149 km2 are in Canada), elevation 323 m, fed by Rainy River from the south and drained to the northwest by the Winnipeg River; it is a remnant of former glacial Lake Agassiz.



In 1663, the Jesuit priest Henri Nouvel landed on the south bank of the St Lawrence River and conducted the first mass. In 1696 this territory was the seigneurie de Lessard, granted to Pierre Lessard and Barbe Fortin, his wife.



Saskatchewan is part of the Prairie region and is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It is bordered by the US to the south, the Northwest Territories to the north, and Manitoba and Alberta to the east and west respectively.


Music in St. Catharines

St. Catharines. Ontario city, incorporated 1876, situated on the south shore of Lake Ontario. Known informally as "the Garden City," it was centred on the earliest of the four Welland canals. The present canal runs along the city's eastern limits.



Redcliff, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1912, population 5588 (2011c), 5116 (2006c). The Town of Redcliff is located adjacent to MEDICINE HAT and named for the outcroppings of red shale occurring along the banks of the nearby South Saskatchewan River.


Fort McPherson

Fort McPherson, NWT, incorporated as a hamlet in 1986, population 792 (2011c), 776 (2006c). The Hamlet of Fort McPherson is located on the east bank of the Peel River, 210 km south of Inuvik on the DEMPSTER HIGHWAY. Named for a


Grand Banks

The water over the banks is mainly supplied by the southward-flowing cold LABRADOR CURRENT. This current splits as it approaches the Grand Banks, with one branch moving south along the coast of Newfoundland through Avalon Channel to St Pierre Bank.


Annapolis Royal

Annapolis Royal, NS, incorporated as a town in 1893, population 481 (2011c), 444 (2006c). The Town of Annapolis Royal is located on the south side of the Annapolis River, about 10 km from its mouth near the western shore of Nova Scotia.


Baffin Bay

 Circulation is generally anticlockwise; off Greenland, relatively warm, salty water moves north, while along Baffin Island, cold, fresher water originating from the Arctic Ocean flows south. Icebergs, formed by calving off the Greenland glaciers, appear year-round, but are most numerous in August.



Lying in the northwestern corner of Canada and isolated by rugged mountains, the Yukon borders Alaska to the west, British Columbia to the south and the Northwest Territories to the east. Historically, it is indelibly associated with the great Klondike Gold Rush.


Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories lie northwest of central Canada, bordered to the east by Nunavut, to the west by the Yukon and to the south by the northeastern corner of British Columbia, as well as the entire northern borders of Alberta and Saskatchewan.



Sometimes referred to as the “keystone” province because of its position in the centre of the country, Manitoba is bounded by Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, Ontario to the east, the United States to the south and Saskatchewan to the west.


Fogo Island

Fogo Island, Nfld, 254 km2, 15 km off Newfoundland's north-east coast, was named y do fogo, "fire island", by the Portuguese. The irregularly shaped island, heavily forested in the south, lies on shallow Fogo Shelf, which attracts salmon, cod and other species.


Battle of Vimy Ridge

The Battle of Vimy Ridge was fought during the First World War from 9 to 12 April 1917. It is Canada’s most celebrated military victory — an often mythologized symbol of the birth of Canadian national pride and awareness. The battle took place on the Western Front, in northern France. The four divisions of the Canadian Corps, fighting together for the first time, attacked the ridge from 9 to 12 April 1917 and captured it from the German army. It was the largest territorial advance of any Allied force to that point in the war — but it would mean little to the outcome of the conflict. More than 10,600 Canadians were killed and wounded in the assault. Today an iconic memorial atop the ridge honours the 11,285 Canadians killed in France throughout the war who have no known graves.


Saskatchewan River

The Saskatchewan River is 1,939 km long from the Rocky Mountains headwaters to Cedar Lake in central Manitoba. When including its longest tributary, the South Saskatchewan River, the Saskatchewan River is the fourth-longest river in Canada. It’s a major tributary to the Nelson River, ultimately draining into Hudson Bay. Its name is derived from the Cree word kisiskâciwanisîpiy meaning swift-flowing river. The Saskatchewan River was a major transportation route for First Nations for thousands of years and was an instrumental transportation and resource corridor during the fur trade and early European exploration.


Canada East

In 1841, Britain united the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This was in response to the violent rebellions of 1837–38. The Durham Report (1839) laid out the guidelines to create the new colony with the Act of Union in 1840. The Province of Canada was made up of Canada West (formerly Upper Canada) and Canada East (formerly Lower Canada). The two regions were governed jointly until Confederation in 1867. Canada West then became Ontario and Canada East became Quebec.