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Article

Stare Decisis

Stare decisis [Latin, "let the decision stand"] refers to the doctrine of precedent, according to which the rules formulated by judges in earlier decisions are to be similarly applied in later cases.

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Traffic Law in Canada

​The regulation of motor vehicle traffic is one of the greatest legal challenges of the 21st century. Governments make traffic laws and statutes, but common law rules still play an important role.

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Treason

Treason is probably the oldest and most serious offence in political society, with the possible exception of murder. The earliest English treason legislation, which dates from 1351, is the basis of all treason legislation in the English-speaking world.

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Ultra Vires-Intra Vires

Ultra Vires-Intra Vires Ultra vires [Lat, "beyond the powers"] is used in CONSTITUTIONAL LAW by the courts who must decide the respective competences of Parliament and provincial legislatures.

Article

Substantive Law

Substantive Law, body of law concerned with rights and obligations, as opposed to PROCEDURAL LAW which concerns how to enforce and defend such rights and obligations.

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Advance Directives

An advance directive (sometimes referred to as a "living will") is a legal mechanism which enables individuals to plan for their own incapacity, and specifically for the situation where decisions have to be taken with respect to their health care after they are no longer mentally capable of making (or communicating) these decisions personally.

Article

Media and the Law

The media are the means by which we receive information we want and need. Over time, town criers and clay tablets have given way to printed text. Now, a wide variety of aural and visual information is conveyed to us in bits and bytes through a number of intermediaries.

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Sentencing Hate Crimes

For many offences, the Criminal Code prescribes only maximum sentences, giving judges wide latitude to determine fit penalties. Judges consider a broad array of aggravating and mitigating factors in sentencing. One aggravating factor is the motivation of racial or group hatred for an offence.

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Hate Propaganda

In Canada, the public promotion of hate against identifiable groups and the advocacy of genocide is, under certain conditions, a criminal offence, punishable by up to 2 years' imprisonment.

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Common-Law Unions in Canada

A common-law union occurs when two people live together in a conjugal relationship, generally for at least a year (or more depending on the province in which they reside). Common-law couples in Canada have many of the same legal, parental and financial rights and obligations as married couples.

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Malpractice

Malpractice is intentional or negligent failure by any professional, eg, doctor, lawyer, accountant, to meet the standards of reasonable competence in his field. These standards are set taking into account the circumstances in which the professional is acting.

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Corporation Law

A corporation is an artificial entity created by or under the laws of a state. Corporation law (also referred to as company law) is the body of law that governs the formation, governance and dissolution of corporations. The corporation is the dominant form of business organization in Canada.

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Succession (Wills)

When a person dies, that person's property or its value is transferred to the persons entitled to it after payment of any outstanding debts and liabilities; this process is described as succession.

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Civil Procedure

Civil procedure, the body of law concerning the prescribed methods of resolving disputes through litigation (see Civil Law). "Civil" distinguishes this body of law from criminal procedure, which concerns the methods of prosecuting criminal offences.

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Medical Ethics

Medical ethics are concerned with moral questions raised by the practice of medicine and, more generally, by health care.

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Estate

Estate, very generally, means all property owned by an individual. For example, the property (including land) owned by a deceased person is referred to as that person's estate. The estate can commence and be subject to legal proceedings, and can be liable to pay debts.