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Welfare State

The welfare state in Canada is a multi-billion dollar system of government programs that transfer money and services to Canadians to deal with an array of societal needs.

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White Paper

White Paper, a government document which outlines both government policy on an issue and possible future action, including legislation. It is sometimes a reaction to the report of a ROYAL COMMISSION or TASK FORCE.

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Minimum Wage

Minimum wage is the lowest hourly wage that an employer is legally permitted to pay to employees. There are 2 sets of minimum-wage laws, reflecting the division of powers between the federal and provincial governments.

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Emergency Preparedness

Emergency Preparedness Canada (EPC) is a federal government organization within the Department of National Defence. It plays an important role in the development and maintenance of civil emergency preparedness in Canada.

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Monetary Policy

Monetary policy refers to government measures taken to affect financial markets and credit conditions, for the purpose of influencing the behaviour of the economy. In Canada, monetary policy is the responsibility of the Bank of Canada, a federal crown corporation that implements its decisions through manipulation of the money supply.

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Public Finance

The relative importance of government expenditures in the Canadian economy has risen dramatically over the past 70 years, from 15% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the late 1920s to 40% of GDP in 1980 and 50% in the early 1990s.

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Old-Age Pension

The old-age pension is a government initiative to help Canadians avoid poverty in retirement. It has changed from a strictly anti-poverty measure, that often humiliated the elderly, into an accepted, mainstream aspect of post-work life.

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White-Collar Crime

White-Collar Crime consists of occupational crime and corporate crime. Occupational crime refers to offences committed against legitimate institutions (businesses or government) by those with "respectable" social status.

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Biculturalism

This neologistic term came into public consciousness with the appointment of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in 1963. On examining its terms of reference the commission could not find the word in a dictionary.

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Workers' Compensation

Workers' compensation is the name of legislation designed to provide benefits, medical care and rehabilitation services to individuals who suffer workplace injuries or contract occupational diseases.

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Think Tank

A think tank is an interdisciplinary body of experts such as scholars or former politicians that crafts opinions on regional, national or international policy and strategic direction, typically related to areas such as commerce, the military, immigration or social welfare.

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Housing and Housing Policy

Canadian housing takes many forms. More than half of Canadian homes are single-family detached houses; 17% are other ground-oriented forms such as row houses, duplexes, semi-detached or movable; 18% are lowrise apartments and 10% are highrise apartments.

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National Policy

The National Policy was a central economic and political strategy of the Conservative Party under Prime Minister John A. Macdonald, and many of his successors in high office. It meant that from 1878 until the Second World War, Canada levied high tariffs on foreign imported goods, to shield Canadian manufacturers from American competition.