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Québec City, Québec, founded in 1608, population 531,902 (2016 c), 516,576 (2011 c). Québec City, the capital of the province of Québec, is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River where it meets the Rivière Saint-Charles. Here, the St. Lawrence narrows to a width of just over 1 km, and navigation is made difficult by a group of islands, the largest of which is Île d'Orléans. Cap-Diamant, a promontory with an elevation of 98 m, dominates the site and was used effectively as a fortification, earning Québec City the name "Gibraltar of North America." The name "Québec" is probably derived from an Algonquian word meaning "narrowing of the river."
Kamloops, BC, incorporated as a city in 1893, population 97,902 (2021 census), 90,280 (2016 census). The City of Kamloops amalgamated with North Kamloops in 1967 and in 1973 with surrounding residential areas to form the present city of Kamloops. It is located in southern British Columbia 355 km northeast of Vancouver via the Coquihalla highway. The city is situated at the confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers near their entrance into Kamloops Lake. The Kamloops Reserve 1, home to some members of the Tk'emlúps te Secwépemc First Nation, is adjacent to the city, on the northeast corner of the river junction.
Prince Albert, SK, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 37,756 (2021 census), 35,926 (2016 census). The City of Prince Albert is located on the south shore of the North Saskatchewan River near the geographical centre of the province. As Saskatchewan's "Gateway to the North," open prairie lies to the south of the city and lakes and forests to the north. Prince Albert is Saskatchewan's third largest city.
Prince Rupert, BC, incorporated as a city in 1910, population 12,300 (2021 census), 12,220 (2016 census). The City of Prince Rupert is located on Kaien Island, at the mouth of the Skeena River in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. It is Canada's wettest city, with an average of 2,619 mm of precipitation falling each year. Prince Rupert marks western end of the Yellowhead Trans-Canada Highway and, as Canada's deepest ice-free seaport, a link between the lower United States, Vancouver and Alaska (see also Iconic Highways in Canada). For these reasons it is the industrial, commercial and institutional centre for BC's Northwest Coast.
Coquitlam, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1992, population 148,625 (2021 census), 139,284 (2016 census). The city of Coquitlam is located on the north bank of the Fraser River between Burnaby and New Westminster to the west and Port Coquitlam and Pitt Meadows to the east. Northwest and northeast Coquitlam include the lower slopes of the Eagle and Burke Mountains, with peaks up to 1,600 m high.
Toronto, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1834, population 2,794,356 (2021 census), 2,731,571 (2016 census). Toronto is Ontario’s capital city, Canada’s largest municipality and the fourth largest city in North America (see also Largest Cities in Canada by Population). It is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life.
Powell River, BC, incorporated as a city in 2005, population 13,943 (2021 census), 13,157 (2016 census). The City of Powell River is located on the east side of the Strait of Georgia, 133 km northwest of Vancouver. It is bounded on the east by the Smith Mountain Range, Powell Lake and Haslam Lake. The city enjoys a mild climate year-round, moderated by the warm current of the strait. It takes its name from the river draining Powell Lake, which was named for Israel Wood Powell, British Columbia’s superintendent of Indian affairs in the 1880s.
Saint-Romuald, Quebec, population 13,435 (2019), 10,825 (2001 census). Originally incorporated in 1965, Saint-Romuald is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. It is across from Sillery and is situated 19 km south of Quebec City. Since 2002, Saint-Romuald is part of the city of Lévis.
Barrie, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1959, population 147,829 (2021 census), 141,434 (2016 census). Barrie is located at the head of Kempenfelt Bay, on the western edge of Lake Simcoe. Located within Simcoe County, Barrie shares borders with the municipalities of Oro-Medonte, Springwater, Essa and Innisfil. Throughout history, the Barrie area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg peoples. The land is covered by treaties 16 and 18.
Trois-Rivières, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 1857, population 139,163 (2021 census), 134,413 (2016 census). The city is located at the mouth of the Saint-Maurice River, on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, midway between Quebec City and Montreal and is the regional capital of Quebec's Mauricie region. Its name derives from the 3-armed delta formed by the river's islands at its mouth.
Windsor, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1892, population 217,188 (2016 census), 210,891 (2011 census). The city of Windsor is Canada’s southernmost city. It is located on the Detroit River in the extreme southwest corner of the province. Lying directly south of Detroit on the rich agricultural peninsula nestled between Lakes Erie and St. Clair, Windsor is an international gateway through which millions of foreign visitors enter the country each year.
Burlington, Ontario, population 186,948 (2021 census), 183,314 (2016 census), is located at the head of Lake Ontario. It borders Hamilton, Milton and Oakville. Burlington was first incorporated in 1873 as a village, as a town in 1915, and as a city in 1974. Amalgamation created the modern boundaries in 1958, combining the Town of Burlington, Nelson Township, and part of East Flamborough Township. Throughout history, the Burlington area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Neutral, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by treaties 3, 8, 14 and 19 (see Upper Canada Land Surrenders).
Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 132,485 (2021 census), 123,798 (2016 census). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.
Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1882, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 215,106 (2016 c), 193,100 (2011 c). The City of Regina is the capital, commercial and financial centre of Saskatchewan. Regina is situated 160 km north of the United States border. The city is set in a wide, level alluvial plain. It was named for Queen Victoria, mother-in-law of the Marquess of Lorne, governor general at the time of the city’s founding.
Cambridge, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1973, population 138,479 (2021 census), 129,920 (2016 census). Cambridge is located within Waterloo Region and along the Grand River. It was created through the amalgamation of the City of Galt, the Towns of Preston and Hespeler, and parts of North Dumfries and Waterloo townships.
Flin Flon, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 4,940 in Manitoba, 159 in Saskatchewan (2021 census); 4,991 in Manitoba, 203 in Saskatchewan (2016 census); area 13.87 km2in Manitoba, 2.37 km2in Saskatchewan. The city of Flin Flon is situated along the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border, 743 km northwest of Winnipeg. The Saskatchewan part of Flin Flon is jointly administered by the two provinces. Flin Flon is named after the fictional character Professor Josiah Flintabbatey Flonatin (created by J.E.P. Muddock), the adventurer-explorer hero of The Sunless City (1905).
Orillia, Ontario, incorporated as a village in 1867, as a town in 1875 and as a city in 1969, population 33,411 (2021 census), 31,166 (2016 census). The city of Orillia is located on the shores of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching in central Ontario. The name likely derives from the Spanish word for the bank of a river or shore of a lake, orilla. The name was given by Sir Peregrine Maitland, lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1818-28), who had served in Spain.
Chilliwack, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1999, population 93,203 (2021 census), 83,788 (2016 census). The city of Chilliwack is located 100 km east of Vancouver on the south shore of the Fraser River. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors elected for four-year terms. The name is derived from the word Ts’elxwéyeqw. According to elder Albert Louie, in Halq’eméylem, the traditional language of the Stó:lō, the word means “going as far as you can go upriver” by canoe on the Chilliwack River.