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Iqaluit

Iqaluit, Nunavut, incorporated as a city in 2001, population 7,740 (2016 c), 6,699 (2011 c). Iqaluit is the capital and largest community in Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut. It is also the territory's only city. Iqaluit is situated at the northeast head of Frobisher Bay, on southern Baffin Island. In an area long used by the Inuit and their ancestors, it is surrounded by hills close to the Sylvia Grinnell River and looks across the bay to the mountains of the Meta Incognita Peninsula.

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Thunder Bay

Thunder Bay, ON, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 107,909 (2016 census), 108,359 (2011 census). The City of Thunder Bay was created by the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. It is located in northwestern Ontario on the west shore of the Lake Superior bay of the same name. Thunder Bay is situated on the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, and the land is covered by the Robinson-Superior Treaty. The Port of Thunder Bay is a western stop along the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. The region’s geography is dominated by the rocks, lakes and forests of the Canadian Shield. Surrounding communities depend on tourism or resource extraction, and look to Thunder Bay for a wide variety of services.

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Yellowknife

Yellowknife, NWT, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 19,569 (2016 c), 19,234 (2011 c). The City of Yellowknife is the capital of the Northwest Territories and the territory's only city. It sits on the Canadian Shield, on the north shore of Great Slave Lake, 512 km from the Arctic Circle and approximately 1,513 km north of Edmonton, Alberta. Due to its northerly location, Yellowknife is the Canadian city with the most hours of summer sunshine, averaging 1,030 hours per year. The city and Yellowknife Bay were named after the Yellowknives, a Dene band who lived on the islands of Great Slave's East Arm and travelled as far north as the Arctic coast to obtain copper for knives and other implements. They, in turn, acquired their name from the copper-bladed knives they carried.

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Kingston

Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 123,798 (2016 c), 123,363 (2011 c). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.

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Regina

Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1882, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 215,106 (2016 c), 193,100 (2011 c). The City of Regina is the capital, commercial and financial centre of Saskatchewan. Regina is situated 160 km north of the United States border. The city is set in a wide, level alluvial plain. It was named for Queen Victoria, mother-in-law of the Marquess of Lorne, governor general at the time of the city’s founding.

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Oshawa

Oshawa, ON, incorporated as a city in 1924, population 159,458 (2016 census), 149,607 (2011 census). The city of Oshawa is located 52 km east of Toronto on Lake Ontario. Originally called Skae's Corners, its present name is an Ojibwa term meaning “that point at the crossing of the stream where the canoe was exchanged for the trail.” In 1974, Oshawa became part of the newly formed Regional Municipality of Durham.

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Brantford

Brantford, ON, incorporated as a city in 1877, population 97,496 (2016 census), 93,650 (2011 census). The City of Brantford is located on the Grand River, 104 km southwest of Toronto. It is home to several manufacturing industries, educational institutions and heritage sites.

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Barrie

Barrie, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1959, population 141,434 (2016 census), 136,063 (2011 census). Barrie is located at the head of Kempenfelt Bay, on the western edge of Lake Simcoe. Located within Simcoe County, Barrie shares borders with the municipalities of Oro-Medonte, Springwater, Essa, and Innisfil. Barrie is located on the traditional territory of the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe peoples, and covered by treaties 16 and 18.

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Saskatoon

The 2 Gowen sites show that hunting tribes were here 6000 years ago. Stratified settlement sites at Tipperary Creek (now Wanuskewin) indicate regular winter habitation by Indigenous peoples.

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London

  London, Ont, incorporated as a city in 1855, population 366 151 (2011c), 352 395 (2006c). The City of London, the seat of Middlesex County, is centrally located in the southwest peninsula of the province, on the Québec-Windsor corridor midway between Toronto (185 km) and Windsor (190 km).

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Moose Jaw

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 32,724 (2016 census), 32,546 (2011 census). The city of Moose Jaw is located 160 km north of the US border and 65 km west of Regina in a sheltered valley at the confluence of the Moose Jaw River and Thunder Creek. It is governed by a mayor and six councillors who are elected to represent the city as a whole. The city’s evocative name is likely based on Indigenous sources and was perhaps first applied to a local creek that supposedly resembled the outline of a moose’s jawbone; another explanation is that it comes from a Cree word for “warm breezes.”

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Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 88,071 (2016 c), 82,997 (2011 c). The City of Niagara Falls possesses a fame and name that are based on the stunning, world-famous Niagara Falls on the Niagara River. Growth has combined tourism and gambling with railhead developments at this Canadian–US border crossing. In the past the manufacturing industry (including electrochemicals and abrasives) dominated, fuelled by cheap and readily available hydroelectric power.

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Whitehorse

 Whitehorse, Yukon, incorporated as a city in 1950, population 25,085 (2016 c), 23,276 (2011 c). The City of Whitehorse, the capital of Yukon, is located about 87 km north of the British Columbia border. Communities like Whitehorse, which fall along the Alaska Highway, are often identified by where they sit on this stretch of road. With Dawson Creek, British Columbia at 0 km, Whitehorse is at kilometre 1,476. The city lies mainly on the western side of the Yukon River on a 600 m wide river plain backed by a steep escarpment with a plateau-like summit 60 m above. The Whitehorse landscape is dominated by Canyon Mountain (locally known as Grey Mountain) to the east, Haeckel Hill to the northwest and Golden Horn Mountain to the south. Nestled in a protected valley, Whitehorse enjoys a moderate climate for the North, with warm, dry summers. Long hours of summer daylight (almost 20 hours in June) offset a short growing season and dark winters.

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Victoria (BC)

Victoria, BC, incorporated as a city in 1862, population 85,792 (2016c), 80,017 (2011c). The capital of British Columbia, the City of Victoria is situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, about 100 km south of Vancouver. Occupying a peninsular site, Victoria is bordered by the Juan de Fuca and Haro straits. In addition, the Olympic Mountains lie to the south, the San Juan Islands to the east, and the fjord-like Saanich Inlet and richly forested Malahat Ridge and Sooke Hills to the west. Greater Victoria lies within the Capital Regional District (CRD), a federation comprising the following incorporated areas: the cities of Victoria, Colwood and Langford; the towns of Sidney and View Royal; and the municipalities of Saanich, Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Central Saanich, North Saanich, Sooke, Metchosin and Highlands. The CRD also includes the electoral areas of Juan de Fuca, the Southern Gulf Islands and Saltspring Island.

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,239,220 (2016 census) 1,096,833 (2011 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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