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Tungsten

Tungsten (W), also called Wolfram, lapis ponderosus or Heavy Stone, is a silver-grey metallic element with the highest melting point of any metal (3410° C). Tungsten has a high density, high strength at elevated temperatures and extreme hardness.

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Tunnels

Unlike other mountainous countries such as Switzerland, and despite its size, Canada is not distinguished by well-known tunnels.

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Shrimp

Shrimp are decapods ("10-footed") crustacean, differing from other decapods in being adapted for swimming, a fact reflected in the large, laterally compressed abdomen and well-developed pairs of swimming legs.

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Canadian Shield

The Canadian Shield refers to the exposed portion of the continental crust underlying the majority of North America. The crust, also known as the North American Craton, extends from northern Mexico to Greenland and consists of hard rocks at least 1 billion years old. With the exception of the Canadian Shield, the rocks of the North American Craton are buried deep within the continent and covered by soil and other material. At 5 million km2, the Shield makes up roughly 50 per cent of Canada’s land mass. Shaped like a horseshoe — or the shields carried during hand-to-hand combat — the Canadian Shield extends from Labrador in the east to include nearly all of Québec, much of Ontario and Manitoba, the northern portion of Saskatchewan, the northeast corner of Alberta, much of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut and into the Arctic Archipelago. (It also reaches into parts of the United States, in New York, Wisconsin and Minnesota.) While at times a barrier to settlement, the Shield has also yielded great resources, including minerals, coniferous forests and the capacity for hydroelectric developments.

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Sea Urchin

Sea Urchin, radially symmetrical marine invertebrate. Sea urchins and near relatives, the sand dollars and heart urchins, belong to class Echinoidea of phylum Echinodermata.

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Seabird

Seabirds are those bird species which spend long periods away from land and obtain all or most of their food from the sea while flying, swimming or diving, and occupy all of the world's oceans.

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Sponge

Sponge (Porifera), phylum of bottom-dwelling, attached, aquatic organisms which, as adults, generate vigorous water currents through their porous bodies by action of internal fields of microscopic flagella (whiplike structures).

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Spring

A spring is a point of natural, concentrated groundwater discharge from soil or rock.

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Starfish

Starfish, or sea star, is a common marine animal found from seashore to ocean depths; 1600 species are known worldwide.

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Sparrow

Sparrow is the name given to several unrelated groups of birds. Sparrows are classified in 3 families: Emberizidae, Estrildidae, and Passeridae.

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Spiraea

Spiraea is a genus of small shrubs of the family Rosaceae (rose). The genus consists of some 70-80 species, as well as many horticultural varieties of garden origin that have resulted from hybridization. Probably the most noteworthy of these hybrids is S.

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Squirrel

 Squirrel, common name for family (Sciuridae) of rodents, comprising 262 species, found in North and South America, Eurasia and Africa.

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Silica

Silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), occurs as the MINERAL quartz and is the most abundant mineral of the Earth's crust. It also occurs in the skeletal parts of some animals (eg, certain protozoa) and various plants.

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Silviculture

Silviculture is the branch of FORESTRY that deals with establishing, caring for and reproducing stands of trees for a variety of forest uses including wildlife habitat, timber production and outdoor recreation.

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Tantramar Marsh

The Tantramar marsh is one of four saltwater tidal marshes covering 20,230 ha on the narrow Chignecto Isthmus that connects New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

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Snail

Snail, common name for members of several groups of gastropod molluscs. Snails inhabit all moist habitats, but most forms are marine.

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Soil

Soil is the thin, fragile surface layer of Earth. It is a dynamic, loose and porous body of variable thickness (between a few centimetres and a few metres). Soil is formed by continuous transformations of rock or deposit through physical, chemical and biological processes. It is one of the two main components of Earth — the other being oceans — in which life is particularly active. Soil is the source and site of many human activities, and human life greatly depends on it. In Canada, agricultural, environmental and natural-resource scientists are at the forefront of research on soil.

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Solar Energy

The energy contained in sunlight is the source of life on Earth. Humans can harness it to generate power for our activities without producing harmful pollutants. There are many methods of converting solar energy into more readily usable forms of energy such as heat or electricity. The technologies we use to convert solar energy have a relatively small impact on the environment. However, they each have disadvantages that have kept them from being widely adopted.

In Canada, the use of solar energy to generate electricity and heat is growing quickly and is helping reduce pollution related to energy production. Despite Canada’s cold climate and high latitudes (which get less direct sunlight than mid-latitudes), solar power technologies are used in many places, from household rooftops to large power plants. The Canada Energy Regulator (formerly the National Energy Board) expects solar power to make up 3 per cent of Canada’s total electricity generation capacity by 2040.