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Salt

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or common salt, is ubiquitous in the environment. In its solid form, salt crystallizes as colourless cubes and is called rock salt. Salt is also known to geologists as halite. Its crystal structure was the first to be determined by X-rays.

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Forest Survey

Foresters use forest surveys to obtain information on the condition of the FOREST and monitor any changes, since there are not only surveys of standing trees, but also surveys after logging as well as forestry surveys aimed at prescribing treatments.

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Sturgeon

The sturgeon is a large, primitive, bony fish of class Actinopterygii, family Acipenseridae. The 4 genera and 24 species live in fresh and coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Silver

Important producing countries now are Mexico, Peru, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the US, Canada, Australia, Chile, Poland and China. Photographic films and papers account for about 25% of the demand for silver.

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Bobcat

The bobcat (Felis rufus, family Felidae) is a medium-sized, carnivorous mammal, also known as wildcat or bay lynx.

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Chickadee

Chickadees (genus, Poecile) are small birds, which live in woodlands throughout Canada, often visiting backyard birdfeeders.

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Fjord

In oceanographic terminology, fjords are estuaries, ie, semienclosed bodies of water in which seawater is measurably diluted by fresh water from land drainage.

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Tern

 The tern is a medium-sized bird of the GULL family. Terns are usually grey and white; in spring and summer most species have a black cap. Similar to gulls in appearance, terns differ in having more pointed wings and usually a noticeably forked tail.

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Keystone XL Pipeline

Keystone XL is a 1,947 km long pipeline project that will carry crude oil from Alberta to Nebraska. It is owned by Calgary-based TC Energy. The pipeline is named XL for “export limited.” First proposed in July 2008, it is the fourth phase of TC Energy’s existing Keystone Pipeline system. Keystone XL has federal approval on both sides of the Canada-US border. It has nevertheless faced significant opposition and legal challenges on environmental grounds. In March 2020, TC Energy announced that it will start building the pipeline, backed by an investment from the Alberta government.

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Toronto Feature: Hurricane Hazel

Hurricane Hazel was one of the most devastating and unpredictable tropical storms of the 20th century. It was first identified on 5 October 1954, in the Caribbean, where it smashed into Haiti and then battered the Carolinas. The storm struck Toronto on 15 October with winds of 124 km/h and record rainfall.

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Natural Gas in Canada

Natural gas ranks among the fastest-growing energy sources in Canada and is seen by many in the energy industry as a game-changer, a comparatively clean, low-cost and versatile fuel. It can directly generate power and heat and can be chemically altered to produce a wide range of useful commodity chemicals. It burns cleaner and more efficiently than other fossil fuels, releasing significantly fewer harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Natural gas is colorless, odourless, shapeless, lighter than air and contains a mixture of several hydrocarbon gases, which are organic compounds consisting of some combination of hydrogen and carbon molecules.

The primary consumers of natural gas are the industrial (54.1 per cent), residential (26.6 per cent) and commercial sectors (19.3 per cent). Canada is the fifth largest natural gas producer after the United States, Russia, Iran and Qatar. Currently, all of Canada’s natural gas exports go to the United States through a network of pipelines, making Canada the largest foreign source of US natural gas imports. At the end of 2016, Canada had 76.7 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves and had produced 152 billion cubic metres of natural gas that year. It is forecasted that global natural gas consumption will double by 2035.

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Wetlands

Wetlands cover about 14 per cent of the land area of Canada, and are the natural habitat of over 600 species of plants, animals and insects. In addition to providing a home for these plants and animals, wetlands are an essential part of the environment because they prevent flooding, filter toxins, store groundwater and limit erosion. The most common wetland habitats are swamps, marshes, and bogs.

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Beekeeping

The complex social organization, the biology and the industrious nature of honeybees (genus Apis) have long fascinated people.

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Nickel

The major contemporary use for nickel is as an alloying agent. Nickel is present in some 3000 different alloys that are used in more than 250 000 end-use applications. The most popular alloy in which nickel is used is stainless steel (seeIRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY).

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Char

Char is the common name for several species of fish of genus Salvelinus of the salmon family (Salmonidae). Approximately 11 char species occur worldwide. Five are native to Canada: arctic char (S. alpinus), Dolly Varden (S. malma), bull trout (S. confluentus), brook trout (S. fontinalis) and lake trout (S. namaycush).