Search for "New France"

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Miguasha Fossils

 In addition to fishes, a few INVERTEBRATES, such as small CRUSTACEANS, worms and eurypterids, which are giant cousins of land scorpions, lived at the bottom of the estuary.

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Resource Use

Since prehistoric times, the inhabitants of what is now Canada used vegetation and animals for food, clothing and shelter. They fashioned implements and ornaments from MINERALS and, after the arrival of Europeans, used furs for trading.

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Fur Trade in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

The fur trade began in the 1600s in what is now Canada. It continued for more than 250 years. Europeans traded with Indigenous people for beaver pelts. The demand for felt hats in Europe drove this business. The fur trade was one of the main reasons that Europeans explored and colonized Canada. It built relationships between Europeans and Indigenous peoples.

(This article is a plain-language summary of the fur trade. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Fur Trade in Canada.)

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Pine

Most are either "soft" pines with 5 needles per shoot or "hard" pines with 2-3 per shoot. The most familiar soft pines are western white pine (P. monticola) of BC, and eastern white pine (P. strobus), east of Manitoba. Others include limber pine (P. flexilis) and whitebark pine (P.

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Sweet Apple

The sweet apple (Malus pumila) is a cultivated species of the rose family and Canada's most important tree fruit crop.

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Botany History

Long before formal study of plants began in Canadian academic institutions, they were studied by explorers and talented amateurs.

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Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 10 311 km2, a rugged and irregularly shaped island, approximately 175 km long by 135 km at its widest, is located at the eastern extremity of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

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Horse

Horse (Equus caballus), herbivorous mammal possessing single toes or hoofs (ie, ungulate), contributing to its speed.

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Fiddleheads

The term fiddlehead is used to refer to plants in 3 ways: (1) the young curled leaf of any fern; (2) the ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris of the Aspidaceae family); and (3) the young curled leaf of the ostrich fern used as a vegetable (often called fiddlehead greens).

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Lily

Lily, common name for members of genus Lilium of the lily family (Liliaceae).

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Tidal Energy

Tidal energy is a largely untapped, renewable energy source based largely on lunar gravitation. While the potential of tidal hydroelectricity has long been recognized, compared to river dams, tidal power projects are expensive because massive structures must be built in difficult saltwater environments.

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Tobacco-Products Industry

Although Canada's tobacco industry has developed largely during this century, tobacco growing goes back to early colonial days, when settlers around the St Lawrence River adopted the smoking customs of aboriginal peoples. French settlers began by copying the agricultural model set by the Indians.

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Hummingbird

Hummingbird is a common name for New World family Trochilidae, which numbers more than 300 species.

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Cougar

Cougar, puma or mountain lion (Felis concolor, family Felidae), is the most gracile of the New World wild cats.

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Raccoon

The common raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a mid-size mammal distinguished by its black face mask and ringed tail. It is a member of the Procyonidae, a primarily tropical family of omnivores native to the Americas — and the only one of this family found in Canada. Raccoons are found in every province except Newfoundland and Labrador. A nocturnal species, it is highly adaptable and can survive in urban areas as well as wilderness habitats. Humans often consider raccoons pests due to their skill and persistence in raiding garbage bins, gardens and crops for food.

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Blackbird

Blackbird is a common name for several species of birds of the New World family Icteridae (which also includes meadowlarks, orioles, cowbirds and grackles).

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Tantramar Marsh

The Tantramar marsh is one of four saltwater tidal marshes covering 20,230 ha on the narrow Chignecto Isthmus that connects New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.