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Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) is a deciduous native shrub that grows from western Ontario to British Columbia and the Yukon.
Rabbit farming, officially called cuniculture (from the species name for wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus), is a small part of Canadian agriculture, with most production in Ontario and Québec.
Algonquin Provincial Park
The oldest provincial park in Ontario and the first provincial park in Canada, Algonquin Provincial Park (established 27 May 1893, 7723 km2) is located 250 km north of Toronto.
Eight species of Solanum occur in Canada, of which only S. carolinense (horse or ball nettle), found in southern Ontario, is native. The most familiar nightshade found across Canada is S. dulcamara (climbing nightshade or European bittersweet).
The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is Canada’s only marsupial. It belongs to one of three marsupial families native to the Americas. The Virginia opossum’s northernmost range reaches into Southern and Southeastern Ontario, Southern Quebec and the lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia. However, this range is slowly expanding north, likely due to climate change.
During the mid-1970s, a Canadian Wildlife Service researcher discovered that birds in Lake Ontario were behaving in a bizarre way: unable to find mates, pairs of female herring gulls were nesting together and devotedly tending clutches of eggs that usually turned out to be infertile.
Lac La Croix Indigenous Pony
The Lac La Croix Indigenous pony, also known as the Lac La Croix Indian pony or the Ojibwa pony, is thought to be the only existing breed of horse developed by Indigenous people in Canada. It takes its name from Lac La Croix First Nation in northwestern Ontario, where it was last found in the wild. Known in the Ojibwa language as bebezhigooganzhii or mishdatim (meaning “one big toenail”), it is a small, semi-feral horse that once lived in the wild and worked as a service animal — but is also considered a spirit animal — for the Ojibwa people of northwestern Ontario and northern Minnesota. Today, this friendly, all-purpose breed is used in equine therapy, Indigenous heritage programs and tourism. Conservation efforts in Canada and the United States strive to protect the breed, which is critically endangered.
Hornet is the common name for wasps in the genus Vespa. They are members of the insect family Vespidae in the order Hymenoptera, which also includes other social wasps like yellowjackets and paper wasps. There are 22 species of hornets worldwide, none of which are native to Canada. However, three introduced species have been found here: the European hornet (Vespa crabro) in southern Ontario and Quebec, and the Japanese yellow hornet (Vespa simillima) and Asian giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia) in coastal British Columbia. The bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata) is native to Canada, but is actually a species of yellowjacket.
The pear (genus Pyrus) is a common name for over 20 species of fruit-bearing and ornamental trees of the rose family.
Fruit growing is an important part of Canada’s food industry. Growing is usually restricted to areas where winter temperatures do not go much below -20°C.
Game bird is not a scientific term, but refers to any bird that is hunted. There are 2 categories in Canada, migratory and nonmigratory.
Nature Conservancy of Canada
The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is the largest land conservation charity in Canada. Since 1962, NCC has helped to protect more than 160,000 km2 of land and water across the country. Its mission is to partner with individual donors, corporations, non-profits and governments to purchase and protect areas rich in species diversity (see Biodiversity). The charity and its partners achieve this goal by working with local communities to identify habitat and species in need of protection, and by implementing the best evidence-based conservation science available. As of June 2019, the NCC has conserved habitat across Canada for 34 per cent of Canada’s species at risk. (See also Endangered Animals in Canada.)
Extinct Animals in Canada
As of May 2021, 18 animal species once found in Canada are now extinct, according to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The committee’s definition of a wildlife species includes taxonomic categories as well as geographically distinct populations. For example, the Atlantic salmon appears on COSEWIC’s list of at-risk species 15 times, as there are 15 populations of Atlantic salmon in Canada facing different threats to their survival. Similarly, when one of these populations goes extinct — as was the case for Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario in 1898 — there are specific, cascading effects for the ecosystem that the population belongs to. Communities may lose fishing opportunities and other animals may lose a source of food. Though the Atlantic salmon is an example of a species with populations still observable in the wild, this list of 18 also includes animals that no longer exist anywhere on the planet, such as the sea mink or great auk. The reasons for the extinction of these animals range from overhunting to predation from invasive species to, in the case of the Eelgrass limpet, a plight of slime mould.
Moss is a small terrestrial plant, usually less than 10 cm tall, that lacks true conducting tissues (xylem, phloem) and has a dominant gametophyte (sexual) generation. Mosses are the largest and most highly developed group of division Bryophyta (which also includes liverworts and hornworts). Bryophytes are sometimes known as the “amphibians of the plant world” because of their dependence on water for sexual reproduction. There are over 10,000 species of moss worldwide, of which about 1,250 are found in North America. Individual parts of Canada have fewer species (e.g., 466 species in Alberta, 445 in Newfoundland, 430 in Ontario). Mosses thrive in humid climates, and coastal parts of Canada have a greater diversity than the interior parts.
Yellowjacket is the common name for wasps in the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. They belong to the insect family Vespidae in the order Hymenoptera, which also includes other types of wasps such as hornets, as well as bees and ants. Worldwide, there are about 50 recognized species of yellowjacket, 17 of which are native to Canada. These native species include the common (Vespula alascensis), Eastern (V. maculifrons), Western (V. pensylvanica) and aerial (Dolichovespula arenaria) yellowjacket. One species, the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), is introduced to Canada and is especially common in Ontario and Quebec.
Resource Towns in Canada
Resource towns are small, isolated communities built around resource-based industries and transportation. They include mining towns, mill towns, railway towns and fishing villages. Resource development has long been a key factor in shaping the settlement and growth of communities. Some scholars have argued that all Canadian urban growth depends on the production of natural resources. (See also Staple Thesis.) Resource towns have been important agents in this production process. Because they depend on single industries, the economies of resource towns are often unstable.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is the largest living species of bear. They are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic. In Canada, this means polar bears live in parts of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Manitoba,Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. Polar bears are both culturally and economically significant to the Inuit. As climate change continues to reduce their sea ice habitat, polar bears are increasingly threatened.
The peach (Prunus persica) is the most widely grown stone fruit. It is native to China and was introduced to Europe 2,000 years ago. Peaches are now grown in temperate zones, worldwide.
Lake Agassiz was the largest glacial lake in North America. It was formed 11 500 years ago in front of the northeastwardly retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, which acted as a dam.