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Rodney Graham

Rodney Graham, artist (born 16 January 1949 in Abbotsford, BC). Known for his conceptual sculpture, text-works, photography and films, Rodney Graham is associated with a group of Vancouver artists that includes Jeff Wall, Ian Wallace, Ken Lum, Stan Douglas and Roy Arden. Graham is especially notable for the ways in which he incorporates various technologies, and the history of technology, into his artworks.


Canadian Shares Nobel Prize

Retired Hamilton restaurateur Max Mintz can still recall the two teenage boys. Following the death of their mother in 1956, David and Myron would often visit Mintz’s diner, the Chicken Roost, brought by their father, dentist Jess Scholes.


Tantoo Cardinal

Rose Marie “Tantoo” Cardinal, CM, actor (born 20 Jul 1950 in Fort McMurray, AB). Cree and Métis actor Tantoo Cardinal has broken barriers for onscreen representation of Indigenous peoples. She has more than 120 film, television and theatre roles to her credit, including the films Dances With Wolves (1990), Black Robe (1991), Smoke Signals (1998) and Through Black Spruce (2018); as well as the TV series Street Legal (1987–94), Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman (1993–95), North of 60 (1993–97), Moccasin Flats (2003-06) and Mohawk Girls (2010–17). She is known for her strong presence, the depth of her performances and her activism on behalf of the environment. A Member of the Order of Canada, she has won a Gemini Award, the Earle Grey Award for lifetime achievement in Canadian television, a Governor General’s Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement, and a National Aboriginal Achievement Award.


Armand J.R. Vaillancourt

Armand J.R. Vaillancourt, sculptor (b at Black Lake, Qué 3 Sept 1929). He studied at the École des beaux-arts in Montréal. An inventor of new techniques, he uses modern materials such as welded metal.


Robert Sutherland

Robert Sutherland, lawyer, benefactor (born c. 1830 in Jamaica; died 2 June 1878 in Toronto, ON). Sutherland was the first university student and graduate of colour in Canada, as well as its first Black lawyer.


Intergenerational Trauma and Residential Schools

Historical trauma occurs when trauma caused by historical oppression is passed down through generations. For more than 100 years, the Canadian government supported residential school programs that isolated Indigenous children from their families and communities (see Residential Schools in Canada). Under the guise of educating and preparing Indigenous children for their participation in Canadian society, the federal government and other administrators of the residential school system committed what has since been described as an act of cultural genocide. As generations of students left these institutions, they returned to their home communities without the knowledge, skills or tools to cope in either world. The impacts of their institutionalization in residential school continue to be felt by subsequent generations. This is called intergenerational trauma.


Toe Blake

He inherited perhaps the most talented team in history, but he encouraged them to work as a team, and achieved unprecedented results. In his 13 seasons, Blake compiled the most successful coaching record in the history of the NHL.


Djanet Sears

Influenced by West-African forms of epic storytelling, Sears developed a signature dramaturgy and performance style that supported and developed its narrative material through choral technique, rhythms, singing and movement. Afrika Solo was premiered in 1987.



The Asia-Canada timeline presented here is a chronological record of over 200 years of history since the first Chinese settlers helped build a trading post in Nootka Sound. The timeline touches on the settlement history of various Asian groups, the discrimination that many suffered in our early history, accomplishments, firsts, biographies, and the gradual changes through which Canadian society came to accept the rights and equality of its Asian immigrants.


Robert Lantos

Robert Lantos, CM, film and television producer and executive (born 3 April 1949 in Budapest, Hungary). A key figure in the development of contemporary Canadian cinema, Robert Lantos is one of Canada’s most powerful producers of film and television. In the 1970s, he founded the distribution company Vivafilm and the production company RSL Productions. In the 1980s and 1990s, he was chair and CEO of Alliance Communications Corporation, Canada’s largest film and television production and distribution company, before leaving to produce films through his own Serendipity Point Films. He is a Member of the Order of Canada and the Canadian Film and Television Hall of Fame and has received numerous awards and honours, including five Genie Awards, four Gemini Awards, two Golden Reel Awards, the Air Canada Award and the Governor General’s Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Achievement.


Christiane Pflug

In 1959 Christiane moved to Canada, where her mother now lived. Living in downtown Toronto, she painted her first landscapes, then interiors, concentrating on her daughters' dolls. On the Black Chair II is a strong early example.


Max Chancy

Community leader, philosophy professor, educator and political activist (born 9 May 1928 in Jacmel, Haiti; died 25 March 2002 in Haiti). He played an active role in founding the Maison d’Haïti, an organization that continues to play an important role in Montreal’s Haitian community. Chancy also worked to improve Quebec’s education system.


Deborah Cox

Deborah Cox, singer, songwriter, actor (born 13 July 1974 in Toronto, ON). One of Canada’s top R&B artists, Deborah Cox is known for her powerful, soulful voice and sultry ballads. “Nobody’s Supposed to Be Here,” from her second album, One Wish (1998), set a record as the longest-running No. 1 R&B single in the US, staying atop the Billboard R&B Singles chart for 14 weeks. She has had six top 20 Billboard R&B singles and 13 No. 1 hits on Billboard’s Dance Club Songs chart. She has received multiple Juno Awards and Grammy Award nominations and has appeared as an actor in film and television and on Broadway. In 2022, she became the first Black woman and only the second Black Canadian (after Oscar Peterson) to be inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame.


Lincoln Alexander

Lincoln MacCauley Alexander, CC, OOnt, QC, lieutenant-governor of Ontario 1985–91, member of Parliament 1968–80, lawyer, public servant (born 21 January 1922 in Toronto, ON; died 19 October 2012 in Hamilton, ON). Alexander was the first Black Canadian member of Parliament (1968), Cabinet minister (1979) and lieutenant-governor (Ontario, 1985). In recognition of his many important accomplishments, 21 January has been celebrated as Lincoln Alexander Day across Canada since 2015.


Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French statesman, comptroller general of finances during the reign of Louis XIV (born 29 August 1619 in Reims, France; died 6 September 1683 in Paris, France). He was the king’s right-hand man and his work led to an unprecedented boost for commerce, industry, financial organization, justice, and royal navy forces. He greatly contributed to the rise of France on the international landscape and had a major influence on the development and settlement of New France. He was also involved in writing the Code Noir which codified slavery, notably in the West Indies and Louisiana. (See also Black Enslavement in Canada.)


Cedric Alan Smith

Cedric Alan Smith, actor, writer, musician (born at Bournemouth, England 21 Sept 1943). Cedric Smith is well known in Canada as decent and goodhearted farmer Alec King in the longrunning TV series Road to Avonlea, and is also a successful stage performer and prolific television and film actor.


Ronald Albert Martin

Ron Martin, painter (b at London, Ont 28 April 1943). Ron Martin studied at H.B. Beal Secondary School in London, Ont, began working in a studio shared with Murrary FAVRO in 1964, and had his first solo exhibition in Jack Pollock's gallery in Toronto in 1965.


Phil Esposito

Philip Anthony Esposito, hockey player (b at Sault Ste Marie, Ont 20 Feb 1942). He began his NHL career as a centre in 1963 with the Chicago Black Hawks and was traded to the Boston Bruins in 1967.